Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures Thesis

Unintentional Appropriation in Cultures

The cultural appropriation concept of using another culture’s symbol, genres, artifacts, rituals, or technologies, as per Rogers is just inescapable when two of them had to meet at a certain point of time. This includes both the virtual as well as the representational contacts. Such appropriations involve in exploiting the marginalized and colonized cultures and help in the survival of subordinated cultures. Their resistance to dominant cultures is also quite visible. According Rogers, the definition of cultural appropriation is the association of one culture to another and ends their own culture. This imitation or borrow tactic might have been done unintentionally to deconstruct or distort one’s culture and this is a form of appropriation. [footnoteRef:1] [1:. Ibid., 476]

We can even say that the Cultural appropriation as an active process that represents the meaning as ‘taking’. However, cultural appropriation does not include the mere exposures to music or film of other cultures. It always speaks about ‘making others as their one’s own’ under a certain or various conditions. This has different functions and outcomes as per the requirement. There are certain factors that affect the degree to which such individual or cultural appropriation happens. Some of them are the symmetry or asymmetry of power relations, role in domination or resistance, cultural boundaries, factors such as ‘shape’ or ‘shaped by’. [footnoteRef:2] [2:. Ibid., 476]

The word cultural appropriation has a certain denotation among the people of America. The distinction between cultural appropriation and cultural exchange is blurring quickly. This kind of appropriation manifests mainly because of high fashion and people feel privileged to generalize or stereotype those. In most of the cases, the appropriation happens without knowing the significance of the culture but it is a ‘just for’ kind. Often, we can see it as the livelihood of marginalized communities by the concept ‘just clothes’, ‘just hair’, or ‘just slang’. [footnoteRef:3] [3:. Ibid., 476]

The Fashion Industry

According to Wissinger, the quantitative data of employment rates of the black models versus the white models are scarce. The reports often glean data from journalistic sources or anecdote. Sometime in the early 1990s, the U.S. bureau of Labor started tracking the number of ‘product promoters, models, and demonstrators’. Also, they have started categorizing as per the race or the gender. Though the media has created an attention for racial discrimination in hiring the models, the industry does not support a reliable statistical data of the racial constitution of the modeling workforce. [footnoteRef:4] [4:. Elizabeth A. Wissinger, This Year’s Model: Fashion, Media, and the Making of Glamour (New York: NYU Press, 2011): 217]

Media reports reflect the fact that the employment rate of black models is lower than the models of other color on the catwalks and in the magazines. Though this data does not refer to an authoritative source, it has truth in it. Almost 35% of fashion shows being held in New York’s fashion week have no colored-models and it was reported in the fashion periodical Women’s Wear daily in the fall of 2007. Around 18% of the runway displayed black models the following year, a 6% improvement over the previous year. The slight improvement also paved the way for the famous issue of Italian Vogue that devoted an issue to black models to draw an attention to the color imbalance. The statistics regarding the race or ethnicity of other modeling professionals is also scarce. Some of the modeling professionals are model agents, or the editors, designers, photographers and the hair and make-up professionals who work with models. When we consider the overall modeling industry, the level of black employment is a negligible proportion as a representation of the population. [footnoteRef:5] [5:. Ibid., 218]

The Model Look

As per Wissinger, the glamor labor of a model has to commodify their looks to match the ever-changing whims of the clients. However, looks are not completely arbitrary and they are governed by a system of “types.” A “type” is referred to as a euphemism for a combination of qualities such as gender, age, ethnicity, and appearance. They often racially defined although they are not declared explicitly. A client who is looking for an “exotic” type or an “all-American” model, uses the language such as a model of color or a blue-eyed blond. Other definitions of models are based on shape or experience in their profession such as “in development,” “new faces,” runway models, commercial models, high-board or high-level models (they get top fees). They also often look for men, children, etc. Historically, in the United States market, the term “ethnic model” applied to those who do not fit the standard of white model “type.” [footnoteRef:6] [6:. Ibid., 219.]

Even though the black models have the ‘looks’ or ‘skills’, they get fewer opportunities, as model ‘types’ are used to market products. The resulting segmented labor markets mainly due to those ingrained attitudes. It is not just because of the black-white divide that these internal segmentations occur in their jobs but also because of looking for specific shades of skins. The aesthetic knowledge of knowing about the semiotics of skin tone is more prevalent in the black modeling and is less common among the Caucasian models. It has even become a part of every black model’s job to understand the subtle and not so subtle messages about the racial types. [footnoteRef:7] [7:. Elizabeth Wissinger, “Managing the semiotics of skin tone: Race and aesthetic labor in the fashion modeling industry,” Economic and Industrial Democracy 33 (2011): 134.]

The corporate’s gaze upon the freelancing modeling industry demands a non-stop structuring of their body. After the black models, have started to appear in advertisements with paints on their faces to appear like tigers or other animals of the jungle, in stifling prints or any exotic attire, they also began to follow gendered stereotypes with depicted images. Some researchers have found that black models better fit in only four roles such as musician, celebrity, athlete, or object of pity. They also need a higher level of aesthetic skills to be a part in any ‘fashion’ work. Most non-ethnic models can be presented with a better look needed for a fashion show or a photo shoot, by a make-up professionals themselves. Whereas, they cannot do the transformation with the black models, they do not even have the tools to adapt the black skin. The black models also need to protect their curly hair from various stylings at the shoot. The modeling industry requires an investment of money and time before they get offers but the black models have to do a little more of such investments in the form of ‘making up’ and styling their hair on their own. [footnoteRef:8] [8:. Wissinger, This Year’s Model, 230.]

McLeod has a telling comment: out of the 10 women who appears on the cover of a bridal magazine, 8 women are always white. Black models get lesser chances there. As per the results of few types of research that are carried out from 2000 to 2004 in the U.S., the black women who have appeared as brides is less than 2% of more than 6,000 advertisements. As per the Cornell University, the study of 10 wedding magazines published from 2013 through 2016 discovered that 74 women on the covers unequivocally looked white, 6 unequivocally looked like women of color, and the remaining 16 looked as if they could be women of color. Mcleod adds that these magazines should not commit mistakes by overlooking the powerful influences that they have on values and norms surrounding a central societal institution. The shock is that they are uniform in presenting the images that underline the painful stereotypes with an implication that whiteness has virginity and purity but the women of color lack it. Overall, these covers imply that women of color are less opted as models for beautiful brides and are less desired as marriage partners. [footnoteRef:9] [9:. Poppy, L. Mcleod, “Nice Day for a ‘White’ Wedding: The Problem with Whiteness in Bridal Magazines,” The Roots, July 23, 2016.]

Implications of Cultural Appropriation

Many people do not understand ‘cultural appropriation’ and why is it a problematic practice, as it is a rather recent happening. Nittle argues that it is a concern for a variety of reasons. Firstly, this “borrowing” robs the credits of the minority groups. The dominant groups tend to be innovative and peripheral by associating themselves with the art, music forms, and beauty of the minority groups. While the disadvantages minority groups face negative stereotypes while doing such borrowing and it looks like they lack intelligence and creativity. Further, the dominant groups often reinforce stereotypes about minority groups, when they appropriate the cultures of others. [footnoteRef:10] [10: 10. Nadra, K. Nittle, “What Is Cultural Appropriation and Why Is It Wrong?” About News & Issues, November 14, 2016.]

The power imbalance between those in power and those who have been historically marginalized is highlighted by cultural appropriation. A member of a dominant group can appear with a traditional dress of a minority group for a Halloween party or for a musical performance, but they are unaware of the roots of such dress and also of the challenges that those groups faced in the Western society. [footnoteRef:11] [11:. Ibid.]

The trivialization of violent historical oppression, letting people show love for a culture but remaining prejudices against its people, spreading mass lies about marginalized cultures, and perpetuating racist stereotypes are all constituents of cultural appropriation. [footnoteRef:12] [12:. Ibid.]


Finley, Taryn. 10 Times Black Culture Was Appropriated In 2015. December 16, 2015. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/10-times-black-culture-was-appropriated-in-2015_us_566ee11de4b011b83a6bd660.

McLeod, L. Poppy. Nice Day for a ‘White’ Wedding: The Problem With Whiteness in Bridal Magazines. July 23, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://www.theroot.com/articles/culture/2016/07/nice-day-for-a-white-wedding-the-problem-with-whiteness-in-bridal-magazines.

Nittle, K. Nadra. What Is Cultural Appropriation and Why Is It Wrong? November 14, 2016. Accessed November 18, 2016. http://racerelations.about.com/od/diversitymatters/fl/What-Is-Cultural-Appropriation-and-Why-Is-It-Wrong.htm.

Rogers, Richard A. “From Cultural Exchange to Transculturation: A Review and Reconceptualization of Cultural Appropriation.” Communication Theory, Vol 16, Issue 4 (November 2006): 474 — 503. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00277.

Wissinger, Elizabeth A. “Black-Black-Black: How Race Is Read.” In This Year’s Model: Fashion, Media, and the Making of Glamour, by Elizabeth A. Wissinger, 216-242. New York: NYU Press, 2015.

Wissinger, Elizabeth. “Managing the semiotics of skin tone: Race and aesthetic labor in the fashion modeling industry.” Economic and Industrial Democracy, Vol 33, Issue 1 (February 2011): 125-143. http://eid.sagepub.com/content/33/1/125.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper