Transformational leadership styles and how they promote employee

Chapter five deals with the discussions of the findings as explained in chapter four. The chapter begins with an introduction that explains briefly what the chapter does. It goes to a compressive analysis of findings regarded as general analysis, discusses the factor analysis and reliability analysis, and concludes with conclusions and recommendations. The hypothesis questions are analyzed in this chapter, and also, the researcher gives the recommendations for future research and the gaps to be dealt with in the future.
5.2: General discussion
The study’s objective is to analyze the impact of leadership in boosting the level of innovation among the employees working in the food retail sector. The other research objectives were to analyze the idea and philosophies related to leadership, explore the issues affecting innovation in employees at the workplace, evaluate the importance of leadership in promoting employees’ innovation and suggest the strategies that leaders can implement to help the employees in innovating businesses.
The researcher considered demographic factors, age, gender, work experience, education level, and job level. The research also gathered data on transformational leadership styles and how they promote employee innovation. The concept of leadership, motivation, power, and influence was also factored during the survey.
Under the gender demographic factor, the researcher factored out male and female. The males had the highest percentage of 56.7%, while the females had a lower percentage of 43.3%. This implies that the male is the majority in business, and they are the people who turned up to answer the questionnaires in large numbers. The male gender understands the effects of leadership in business and how the leadership styles can influence business innovation and business performance either positively or negatively.
On the side of job level, the researcher grouped the participants into four job levels, the top management, middle management, frontline management, and operators. The employees in top management and middle management had the highest frequency of 30.7% and 30%, respectively. This can be attributed to the fact that the top management and middle-level management experience a good flow of communication between them. The employees working in this department understand the advantage of innovation in businesses and the advantages of good leadership. Leaders who motivate the employees enjoy leadership, for the employees are not pushed to work; the employees also own the company and work diligently to improve the company’s performance. Leaders who reward the employees also enjoy good performance and respect from their employees, hence improving their performance. The employees who work as operators had 23.3%, while the frontline employees had 16%. Even though these employees work in the same company as the managers and middle managers, they can barely understand the impact of leadership in boosting innovations among themselves. The company can employ all types of employees, both the formal level of education, degree level, and undergraduate level. The job positions are given per the level of education or the years of experience working in the same food sector, with top managers being the most learned and having many years of work, followed by middle management, then front line employees, and lastly operators. This implies that the major proportion of employees in middle management are the majority who took part in the interview process because they are many in numbers and the people working hard to reach the level of managers. The managers will take part in the interview, but most of them will lack time, and some may give wrong information to cover up the company’s problems. This may be due to a breakdown of communication or low education level.
The researcher also considered the education level of employees who participated in data gathering. The education level was grouped into five categories: employees without formal education, primary school education, secondary school education, diploma education, and degree education. From the findings represented in the table, the employees with no formal education had 16.7%, those who had primary school level education had 13.3 %, and the secondary school level employees had 10%. The undergraduate employees had the highest level of 36.7%, followed by employees who were diploma holders with 23.3 %. The findings imply that most respondents have a considerable level of education from a diploma education level. As per the data collected in the table and pie chart, the employees with a degree of education were the majority, with 36.7% meaning these employees understand the impacts of leadership in boosting innovation among employees. Because of their education level, these employees also understand the impact of leadership on innovation and how different leadership styles promote innovation. The diploma holders’ employers had 23.3%, which also shows they know the research objectives. The employees with the primary and education level had 13.3% and 10%, respectively, showing they have little knowledge of how leadership can promote or impact innovation.
Interestingly, the employees with no education had 16.7 percent more than employees with primary and secondary education. This shows that even though education matters in securing positions in various job sectors, some employees use only the skills they are taught in the workplace, becoming more productive than those with basic education. They may not understand much about leadership’s impact on innovation, but when taught, they understand more. These are the type of employees who work follow directives blindly without questioning the managers, whether they are on the right or wrong.
The researcher also collected data comparing the employee’s ages. From the age groupings, the age bracket of 18 and 21 years had 24%, employees in the age bracket between 22 to 26 years had 16%, while the employees under the age bracket between 27 to 31 years had 20%. The employees in the age bracket between 32 and 36 had the highest percentage of 29.3, while those above 36 years had the lowest percentage of 10. The pie chart is drawn and also represents the same data. The percentage given shows that the employees between 32 and 36 were the majority and understood the research topic very well. These employees understand the impact of leadership on innovation and factors that affect the level of innovation of employees in the workplace. Young employees are left behind because they are not well familiar with the importance of innovation in business and how leaders or leadership styles can affect the innovation of employees, which further leads to poor performance in the job place.
From the data gathered by the research on the work experience, the finding shows that the employee who worked 1 to 2 years had 23%, those who worked three years had 40%, those who worked five years and above had 37%, while those who are one year and below had 23% which is also echoed by the pie chart below. The employees with years and above work experience registered the highest percentage, which means the employees understand clearly how leadership can promote innovation among the employees and how poor leadership styles can hinder innovation among the employees working in the retail sector. The employees are also aware of factors affecting the innovation among the employees, the major ones being the culture and the company structure. Because employees who have long stay in their job have experienced different leadership, they are in a good position to explain the impact of poor leadership in any retail sector. Poor communication is also a barrier to innovation, for if workers fail to get directives given by managers, nothing of importance will go on. Managers who don’t motivate the employees also experience difficulty introducing innovation in the workplace; the employees also fear being innovative, for they may get reprimanded when they change the schedule given by their bosses.
As per the data gathered on the factors affecting the level of innovation of employees in the workplace, the researcher considered the factors such as culture and environment, company structure, innovation process, leadership style, and corporate strategies, as per the data collected; leadership style had the highest percentage of 36.7, followed by company structure at 23.3%, then culture and environment at 16.7 %, innovation process at 13.3% and lastly, corporate strategies had 10 percent. The leaders contribute mostly either negatively or positively to employees’ innovation. When leaders embrace innovation and support workers’ ideas, the workers use the ideas for the growth and performance of the company. The company’s structure, how flexible the company goals are, and if they can be edited to allow changes or innovative ideas from the employees will positively or negatively affect the employees’ innovation. The percentage shows that leadership style contributes highly to employees’ innovation in any given company. Poor leadership leads to poor communication hence affecting the innovation process. Suppose the leadership style is good and the employees are happy with the leadership. In that case, the innovation will be implemented without failure, for all the employees will be ready to try the innovation. The company structure also highly affects the innovation of employees in the workplace. If the structure is rigid and doesn’t agree on a change, employee innovation will be highly affected, for the management will be ruling as they wish.
The researcher also considered the concept of leadership: influence, motivation, and power. The influence had the highest percentage of 36.7%, power was the second with 33.3%, and motivation was the last 30 %. Leadership influence plays a very big role in employees’ innovation, which is why it has a high percentage. When the leaders initiate and embrace the innovation and support the employees in using innovations in their workplace, the innovation process will be easily accomplished with minimal struggle. Motivation also plays a big role in innovation among the employees; when the leaders motivate the employees by encouraging them to use innovation in their businesses, buying them required innovation tools, and also providing them with training on how to integrate innovation in their businesses successfully, it becomes easy for employees to use innovation hence the innovation barriers are less a problem. Idealized influence defines leaders who are role models to their friends. Leaders who use idealized influence are trustworthy and can be respected by friends to make better verdicts for the company. Inspiration motivation explains leaders who encourage their friends to compel to the mission and vision of the company. Leaders with inspirational motivation inspire team spirit to attain the goals set for the company, which in return will raise the revenue and expansion of business. Intellectual stimulation explains the leaders who motivate innovation and creativity by inspiring the team’s normal views. The bosses with intellectual simulation encourage critical thinking and problem solving to mark the company better. Individual consideration explains managers who perform as trainers and counselors to their comrades. Bosses who possess individual consideration inspire associates to meet goals that assist both the comrades and the association.
The motivation concept of leadership states that the leader can influence their team members to attain the common goals as well as objectives. It has been analyzed that effective leaders should be well trained to easily encourage their team members so that they can work as per their directions. One of the main conclusions of this research is that with the aid of influencing skills, managers can improve the level of performance of their team members. The second concept of leadership states that the leader should have the power to make someone else work towards attaining a common goal (Siangchokyoo, et al., 2020). As a result, the company’s image and production can be improved at the universal level. According to Vasilescu, (2019), a leader should use their power in order to improve the performance level of their co-workers. According to other writers opinion, the managers plays a vital role in motivating their group members so that they are able to work effectively and efficiently. With the help of proper motivation, the workers of the food retail sector in the UK are able to give their best in order to attain their objectives. It is therefore necessary to implement an effective leadership style, the market image of the company can also be increased at the global level.
The transformational leadership types are inspirational motivation, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and idealized influence (Siganga & S, 2019). Inspirational motivation had 33.3%, followed by individual consideration with 30%, then idealized influence had 20%, and finally, intellectual stimulation had 16.7 %. The pie chart represents the data shown in the table. The scale of this study is based on the various accepted theories and findings related to the research topic; the impact of leadership in boosting innovation among employees in the UK retail sector. The ratings in the transformation leadership ranged from 1 to 5, with 1 standing for strongly agree, 2 standing for agree, 3 standing for partially agree,4 standing for disagree and 5 standing for totally disagree. The participants strongly agreed that their leaders are role models and they encourage them and that is why they work with minimal supervisor for better performance of the company. They also agreed that through motivation given by their leaders, they are able to focus on their duties given and that is why they are doing every best to increase the company’s production. However, they partially disagreed that leaders support creativity and encourage personal growth. Very few leaders who encourage creativity between the employees, few leaders like employees expand in terms of their career for the few they may get displaced by them. The participants also disagreed on the point that managers encourage team work, for in case of creativity, it becomes a single person duty, and its only the person who came with the idea get reward, the other members in the department are ignored. Lastly, the respondents also disagreed on the point of managers feeling happy when the employees expand in their career-wise, some managers inhibit the growth of employees for malicious reasons and if the overall manager is not careful, good ideas which can increase company performance are overlooked so that the owner of idea cannot be recognized.
The data represented in table 12 shows that the company uses technology and all thethe processes in the company are automated, meaning they are strongly enjoying the benefits of innovation and automation of production at the same time. The participants accepted the company uses technology and its automated, the participants also agreed that the company put the innovative ideas the employees comes with into work, to try and improve the performance of the company. However, the respondents disagreed that the company is reluctant in innovating the company structure and the processes within the company, which may be dragging the performance of the company and making workers feel demotivated because innovation and creativity are key to the company’s success. The tables 13 represents the descriptive data with their mean and standard deviations as collected and analyzed during the survey. The findings were arrived at from the workers opinions about the transformational leadership and how it affects innovation among the workers of the food retail sector. The average above shows that the workers working in the food retail sector understand the role played by the transformation leadership and how it impacts the innovation in among employees in their companies. The participants agreed in unison that the transformation leadership style has a positive impact on employee innovation and can be used in food sector companies in order to improve the company performance and the growth of employees career wise. The transformational leadership, leadership concept and the innovation became the variables(dependent and independent) in this study. The transformational leadership skewness was -0.290 with a kurtosis 0f -0.194. The leadership concepts and innovation followed with-0.129,-0.128 respectively for skewness and -0.394 and -0.194 for kurtosis respectively. The data in the table 14 shows that the leadership style and innovation positively affect employees’ innovation in the workplace, especially in the food retail sector. The transformation leadership has a correlation value of 0.760 and a 0.000 2- tailed coefficient. This shows that the both variables are effective and there is a significant association among those working in the food retail sector hence making the H1 to be accepted.
H2: if there exists a significant link between transformational leadership styles and workers’ innovation in the workplace, especially in the food retail sector. The
correlation coefficient for innovation falls at 0.760 with the 2-tailed coefficient registering 000 showing also that the independent and the dependent variables are effective and their exist strong association between transformation leadership style and workers innovation hence making the hypothesis 2 to be accepted.
5.3 Factor analysis
Factor analysis, according to Hair (Melnikovas, 2018), is a statistical methodology that entails compressing the data contained in a number of existing variables into a smaller number of parameters with little information loss. To establish the underlying framework of the factors in the evaluation, the researchers employed factor analysis. While factor analysis may be used to validate a hypothesis, it was employed in this research for exploratory reasons, i.e., to limit the amount of data that was evaluated. The information is condensed into smaller sets with the least amount of information loss possible. Communalities were employed in the research to decide which sub-variables should be eliminated from further analysis.
5.4 Reliability analysis
The study tested the reliability of the concept of leadership, which are the influence, power and motivation that influence leadership and boost innovation among the employees. The Cronbach’s Alpha test of reliability was used (Siganga&S, 2019). The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient determines how all elements on a test relate to each other and to the overall test-internal cohesion of data to calculate internal reliability. The factors affecting the level of innovation of employees in the workplace were also tested using the Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test
5.5: Conclusion
The aim of the research was to comprehend the impact of leadership in boosting innovation among employees in the retail sector. For successful implementation of intrinsic factors, most business organizations have implemented a protective leadership style for successful implementation of the entire process. Contrariwise, there is a more independent governance style which was thought to create self-driven practices among employees hence making innovation an easy process. The employees who introduce innovative ideas in the food retail sector and the leaders support them and work towards achieving their desires, luckily the idea becomes productive; those employees will feel motivated; hence they will have intrinsic motivation to work extremely hard for even better performance. Leaders play a significant role in promoting the employees’ innovation in the food retail sector. Employees working in food retail sectors like supermarkets need to be innovative and pass the creative ideas to the leaders to increase the company’s performance; otherwise, they will succumb to competition. The study is evaluating the importance of an effective leadership style in promoting employee innovation. Resultantly, the employees are able to work properly under the guidance of their leaders in order to achieve their goals and targets on time. The are many factors affecting the level of the innovation process in the workplace, the cooperation of leaders and employees can play a key role in eradicating these barriers and ensuring the innovation is achieved successfully. It is clear that the leadership styles have several importance in the implementation of innovation, and it’s up to the leaders with managerial positions to become exemplary leaders who motivate employees, guide them and provide them with opportunities of leading whenever an opportunity arises more so helping them use innovation in their business. The research has answered the research gap which many authors have failed to research. The research is helpful for future researchers and scholars who want to study more on the impact of leadership on the innovation of employees.
5.6: Recommendation
Leadership plays a key role in affecting the innovation of employees in the workplace, either positively or negatively. It’s the responsibility of leaders to ensure the employees are supported to ensure they become innovative in their workplace. The leaders should motivate and encourage employees to be innovative, which in turn will help them and the general performance of the company. Some leadership style also has a positive or negative impact on employees and organization innovation where they impact directly or indirectly by influencing the organizational climate and workers’ attitude.
Frontrunners have dual responsibility when handling innovation. When using bottom-up responsibility, they inspire innovative outcomes as they help ideas and creativity coming from persons and teams. In a top-down responsibility, managers are the main means for the company to comprehend its innovation aims and strategies.
Leaders can encourage the employees to be innovative by giving the workers full freedom of giving out ideas, giving the employees an opportunity to use new ideas which they believe will help them and the company. The leaders should also recognize the new ideas presented to them by employees and never brush off new ideas without giving the employees a chance to try their ideas. The leaders should ensure the employees are united and always encourage good association between the employees and managers. The communication between the management and the workers should be good to ensure everyone gets the required information timely and accurately to avoid conflicting interests. The employees should be willing to embrace technological changes which come with innovation, and the leaders should be ready to provide training and required materials for supporting the innovation.

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