The Reintroduction of Wolves into Idaho

Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf reintroduction debate for a long time until the implementation of the plan in 1995 in Idaho. The reintroduction has had legal, political, social, economic, and ecological impact in the state of Idaho.

Management of Wolves in Idaho

The introduction of wolves in Idaho began in January 1995. Since then, wolves have become a major component of the native wildlife in the state. The state manages the wolves through Idaho Department of Fish & Game (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ). Wolf is designated a major game species and classified as a predator. The state undertakes inventory, performs predator-prey research and works with other stakeholders including the local population, neighboring states and Canada to limit depredations. In addition, the state also manages hunting and trapping of the wolves.

The cornerstone of the wolf management lies in their monitoring. The state monitors the population figures, distribution and breeding. There is a selected packs tagged with radio devices spread across the occupied area, including those that are predisposed to depredation on domesticated animals. Monitoring in this case also predicts occurrences of depredation initiating proactive management (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ). The state monitors and document movement of wolves within the state and neighboring states. The distribution of wolves in Idaho starts from the Canadian border to Snake River plain. Some wolf packs occur on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Fifteen documented packs that use the area at the border between Montana and Idaho, residing half-year on either sides. Two to three packs move in the area between Wyoming and Idaho.

According to The goal of the IDFG plan is to maintain the wolf levels at 518 to 732 through adaptive management. This is to ensure sustained validity of the grey wolf population in the state. The Department aims at maintaining ?15 breeding pairs (floor threshold), In line with the delisting rule (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ).

Radio collard wolves provide an estimation of production and pack size. Observations by field personnel also provide more information on the ones that are not radio monitored. Fuller (1989) asserts that humans are the main mortality factor occurring to these animals in their range. Therefore, the human factor is an essential component in the wolf management. The Department faces the challenge of illegal taking of the animals, which is the main impediment to the restoration and management of the wolves. It has undertaken rigorous law enforcement to limit illegal taking as well as reducing public perception of wolf management.

The Department incorporates strategies that assist in limiting depredations as a management plan. Wolves need to be harvested from study packs; the Department factors the effect of harvesting into the study drawn from those packs. Distribution of the harvest is monitored similarly to the other carnivora. The monitoring is based on the same requirement as for the mountain lion and bears, report the location and sex of the animal.

The Department targets a balanced predator- prey populations ensuring transfer of genetics through connectivity among the neighboring states and metapopulation processes. It incorporates evaluation the effects of predication on the native prey as a wolf management plan. Unfavorable weather patterns such as drought and severe winter may reduce the native prey, hence inhibiting the big game population recovery. It is therefore necessary to remove wolves that can affect the survival of the big game; by doing this, the Department increases the prey population. The Department does this by monitoring the prey levels and especially the native ungulates population trends and mortality causes. In addition, the Department conducts annual census of selected prey that exist within the range of study packs. This helps in detection of trends and prediction of population size.

Legal Dimension

The state legislature of Idaho, established the Legislative Wolf Oversight Committee to undertake the Wolf management plan after the delisting. This was mainly to delegate management authority to the state (Idaho Legislative Wolf Oversight Committee 2002). The statute authorized the Idaho Department of Fisheries and Game (IDFG) to manage the state’s wildlife.

“All wildlife, including all wild animals, wild birds, and fish, within the state of Idaho, is hereby declared to be the property of the state of Idaho. It shall be preserved, protected, perpetuated, and managed. It shall be only captured or taken at such times or places, under such conditions, or by such means, or in such manner, as will preserve, protect and perpetuate such wildlife, and provide for the citizens of this state and, as by law permitted to others, continued supplies of such wildlife for hunting, fishing and trapping. ” (Law 2011)

This made it possible for the IDFG responsible for wolf protection as well as manage their habitat and ecosystems within the state.

The State adjusted laws aimed at protecting the wolf in their habitat. Hunters therefore are subjected to stringent laws and in case of incidental take; the penalty is equal to that of other illegally taken big game in the state. Therefore, “Incidents of illegal take deemed deliberate shall be punishable under the rules of illegal take of wildlife” (Idaho Legislative Wolf Oversight Committee 2002, 7). In addition, if one is convicted of killing of the species, illegal possession waste of wolf, a penalty of restitution is paid to Idaho for each violation as specified by the code.

Several groups filed suits following the reintroduction of wolves in Idaho’s Yellow stone Park. The American Farm Bureaus filed a suit in the 10th Circuit Court of Appeal in Denver to halt the wolf program. The ranchers are responsible for wiping out the wolves population from the region in favor of their activities. They argued that the reintroduction of wolves violated the Endangered Species Act as wolves were already in the neighboring state. They also added that wolves posed a threat to their livestock (ABC News 2000). ABC News (2000), reveal that the Denver court in a 3 to none vote reversed a decision by U.S. District Judge William Downes in 1997 who ordered the removal of the wolves from Yellowstone.

Political Dimension

The U.S. Congress in 1991 directed the Fish and Wildlife Service to develop an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the purpose of wolf re-introduction in central Idaho. A document published by the U.S.F.W.S in 1994 paved the way for the re-introduction process though with opposition (Weiss, et al. 2007, 311). The National Audubon Society and the Sierra Club opposed the plan in citing the possibility of inadequate protection in the proposed Yellowstone Park. The Farm Bureau of Idaho opposed the move arguing that the grey wolf was a wrong subspecies to be re-introduced in Idaho.

The introduction of wolves in Idaho in 1995 resulted in a heated political debate regarding wildlife in the United States. One of the contentious issues in the debate was the constitution of the Endangered Species Act. Certain groups claimed that this was as a state issue and that the federal government should not interfered with. The debate led to the passing of the anti-wolf bills at the country level and in state legislatures. The issue brought to light the wolf management, majority of citizens got information on the impact of the wolves on livestock and the ungulate population preyed upon by wolves.

The residents of Idaho felt that the Federal government had imposed the conservation measure upon them. They saw the move to re-introduce wolves in the state was not the decision of the state government but rather the Federal government. The Federal government then sort to delist the grey wolf from the endangered species to reduce the impact of political battles between wolf conservationists and ranchers and to give the state the mandate to manage the wolves in compliance with Fish and wildlife policy. Despite the approval by Fish and Wildlife, Idaho’s management plan, did not meet the required standard.

In 2012, the Governor of Idaho advocated for the killing of 500 wolves, eighty percent of the population in addition to limiting the breeding pairs to 10. This increased the number of wolves killed, more than a third of the population killed since the reintroduction in 1995 following the transfer of the management to the state of Idaho by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This move was strongly supported by a majority of the residents of Idaho despite the fact that it conflicted with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service guidelines which stipulated that the “population of wolves was to be more than 100 species to be delisted from the endangered species” (Cockerham 2012). The Governor claimed that the federal government should have increased allocation of funds to the state and ranches as compensation for the inconveniences caused by the wolves. In addition, the state was seeking to cut the management cost since the delisting of the wolves from the endangered species (Cockerham 2012).

The restoration of wolf population in Idaho has increased the citizenry participation in the state’s democratic process thus sparking increased state forums focusing on scientific viewpoint on wolf management. Idaho’s political wing puts undue pressure over the management and ethical considerations of the wolf issue. It is most likely that the unconcerned public will join in political debates with vigor regarding the reintroduction of wolves’ in Idaho. The Department of Fisheries and Game should expect frustrations from the politicians concerning wolf reintroduction in Idaho and it is possible that a solution that satisfies the majority will not be possible requiring the involvement of the three government branches.

Social Dimension

The move by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services to captured wolves from Canada and released them into Idaho’s Yellowstone park was positively received by environmentalists, claiming it was beneficial to the community. Many conservationists saw it as a remedy to the past injustices that resulted to extermination. However, the plan was not supported by a section of the residents who had mixed views on the wolves’ reintroduction.

Some groups in the state, though few, believed that the reintroduced wolves had the right to exist just as other wild animals. In addition, it is evident that the state citizens were more willing to pay more for wolf conservation and management plans to help preserve wolves. In addition, in collaboration with sympathizers, they were willing to pay for wolf damage plans resulting in more benefits of the reintroduced wolves to the state.

The citizens saw the value of wolves’ existence and preservation within the state as the charismatic need to the species (Weiss, et al. 2007, 307). Though they had not come into any direct contacts with the species, they believed it was a community responsibility to carry out good deeds towards wild animals and help pass a well balanced and a healthy ecosystem for generations to come (Krutilla 1967). The attitude towards the wolves was a strong motivating factor towards the reintroduction of wolves in Yellowstone and it made the community warm up to the wolves’ reintroduction.

There was intensive discussion prior to and after the reintroduction of wolves in Idaho among the individuals with conflicting of interest in the management and conservation of the wolf population in Idaho. The state organized public hearings to provide individuals with diverse opinions of the reintroduction of wolves and exchange their ideas on the matter. In these sessions, the residents got clear understanding of the wolf re-introduction from other stakeholder such as conservationists, hunters, and ranchers, elected officials as well as tribal representatives.

The local residents interested in local tourism efforts that would help protect the natural beauty of the state welcomed the reintroduction plan. Activities like nighttime tracking and listening tours of the wolves provided accumulated benefits to the community in addition to strengthening good relationships between different stakeholders.

Compensation of the affected livestock keepers from wolf related losses has led to acceptance of wolves’ presence within the local community. This has improved contacts between the ranchers and conservationists and helps alleviate further conflicts. In addition, it fosters human relationships resulting into better understanding and cooperation from the conflicting groups. Moreover, it enhances their activities and achievement of respective goals through the programs. Additional benefits arising from the compensation program include improved survivorship of both the wolves and livestock and understanding among different stakeholders.

The residents approved the existence of wolves in the state as compatible with their way of life. Majority viewed the reintroduction plan as an increased source of awry and competition for other game resource such as deer and elk. They saw the animals as an assault to freedom and their resistance was without a doubt. Since 2000, anti-wolves activists made it clear that wolves were disease ridden, dangerous and vicious carnivores.

Economic Dimension

Before the introduction of the wolves in Idaho ecosystem, Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) report predicted a broad spectrum of economic impact that would come from wolf recovery (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1994). The local and regional economies have greatly benefited from the money generated by the Wolves. The wolves have positively influenced the tourism industry translating into tourism dollars.

Duffield, Neher and Patterson (2008), estimates that the introduction of wolves in the Yellow national Park generates between $6 and $10 million annually. In addition, the value of foregone hunters benefits, depredation of livestock and the management of the wolves cost approximately 1 million annually. Duffield, Neher and Patterson (2008) in their research revealed that Yellowstone visitation rose from 1.5% in the spring to 5% in fall due to the presence of the wolves. They continue by stating that in 1991, 15% of park visitors wanted to see wolves, in 1999 after the introduction, the percentage rose to 36% who wanted to see wolves. In 2005, 44% percent mentioned wolves as the species to see (Duffield, Neher and Patterson 2008, 14). According to Duffield and Neher, visitation as a result of wolves’ recovery will increase the yearly expenditure to $23 million.

Economic indicators reveal that the $30 million yearly expenditure from the tourism sector as a result of the introduction of wolves, circulate through the local economy yielding an additional $70 million yearly (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ).

The public as well as the legislatures demand a high level of information about wolves, for this reason, the State is using money generated from hunting license in managing wolves. However, wolves’ restoration to Northern Rocky Mountain remains a priority, driven by Endangered Species Act and funded by federal dollars (Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2008 ). The US Congress appropriates money through the United States Fisheries and Wildlife Service’s budget. It is uncertain whether the federal government will sustain the support of wolf management due to deficit and changes in the budgeting process.

Idaho must self-sponsor wolf management. It will rely on general funds or the state’s hunting license account. Alternatively, Idaho’s wildlife agency might redirect federal aid funds from other sources or wildlife grant programs to subsidize the budget. This will greatly influence the financial state of wolf and other wildlife management in Idaho (Smith and Sime 2007). This is more likely to trigger debate among the elected officials as well as the public on the financial sources and budget for wolf management.

The legislatures and the public could as well adjust their expectations by reducing the budget commensurate with available financial resources. They could also reconcile their comfort levels with conservation and management of wolves. This may affect revenue generation because reduction in ungulate-license will affect revenue.

Ecological Dimension

The presence of grey Wolves in Yellowstone Park is an important achievement for conservation science. However, the point to which subpopulations are genetically structured and connected, along with the preservation of genetic variation, is an essential concern for the sustainability of the overall population. The population maintains high levels of variation with low levels of inbreeding leading to rapid population expansion throughout the period. Wolf detection and the migration pattern is a challenge due to the presence of related founders among different recovery areas. The successful conservation of wolves in the Yellowstone Park is dependent on the management decision to promote natural dispersal dynamics while minimizing anthropogenic factors.

Depredation is one of the reasons why many groups fiercely opposed the reintroduction of wolves into the state was the presumption that the wolf population would interfere with the livestock. The Department of Fish and Wildlife Service has managed the wolf population since then and the Idaho wolf population has made a remarkable comeback with minimal depredation cases. The wolf population is estimated at 1,200 in the Greater Yellowstone area, 700 of these residing within Idaho’s borders in 2007.

The reintroduction of wolves in the region has increased biodiversity within Yellowstone National Park ecosystem. Reduction of prey is detrimental to the survival of wolves. The rapid in new-growth vegetation, such as aspen and willow trees, is an indication of the decline in the elk population in the region. This vegetation has made remarkable recovery due predation by the wolves on the elk (Kimble, et al. 2011). Moreover, the restoration of the vegetation has led to appearance of other species such as the beaver and the red fox. This could also be because of the wolves keeping coyotes at bay.

In addition, the wolf population has increasingly become a nuisance. Early biologists held a belief that wolves hunted their prey selectively, choosing to catch the weakest prey species. Current studies suggest that this could be true. According to Halfpenny (2003), the predetor selects the prey by a shifting and sorting method that involve testing a herd, indentification of the weakest and pursuing it. In Yellowstone National Park, it is evident that the wolves killed the very old or with age related conditions such as arthritis or those with depleted fat reserves (Stahler, Heinrich and Smith 2002).

According to Kimble, et al. (2011) suggestions were made that Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prevelance in elk would be reduced by the wolves. The impact of this still has not been seen. It is still based on simulation modeling results as the present lack of corelation between the CWD and the wolve. However, predation on elk and deer by wolves gives the same effect.

“Such predation reduces forage competition between livestock and other ungulates, such as deer and elk that constitute wolves’ primary prey, with potentially positive impacts on livestock production. In some locations, reintroducing wolves is likely to generate net economic benefits by lowering densities of ungulates that have created financial burdens on stakeholders exposed to costs from ungulate over-abundance” (Unsworth, et al. 2005, 301).

Observation made in the Yellowstone National Park reveal that a number of animals other than wolves show up to feed on wolf-kill leftovers. Evidence suggests that the animals are made up of not less than 12 scavenger species and have been seen at wolf kills. This includes “coyotes, grizzly bears, black bears, eagles, ravens and magpies”(Smith, Peterson and Huston 2003). Ravens usually folk in large numbers around wolf kill, flying in close to the wolves even before the prey is down.


The introduction of wolves in Idaho has greatly influenced the native wildlife in the state. The state through a statute authorized the management of the wolves to the Department of Fisheries and Game (IDFG). The reintroduction process has generated heated debate with several groups such as the National Audubon Society and the Sierra Club opposing the plan citing the possibility of inadequate protection in the proposed Yellowstone Park. The Farm Bureau of Idaho also opposed the move arguing that the grey wolf was not an endangered species. However, the local and regional economies have greatly benefited from the money generated by the Wolves. The wolves have positively influenced the tourism industry translating into tourism dollars. The presence of grey Wolves in Yellowstone Park has also been an important achievement for conservation science.


ABC News. “Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay.” ABC News, January 14, 2000.

Cockerham, Sean. “Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves.” March 8, 2012. (accessed April 7, 2012).

Duffield, J. “An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values.” Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.

Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. “Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor

Attitudes, Expenditures, and Economic Impacts.” 2008.

Halfpenny, James C. Yellowstone wolves in the wild. Helena: Riverbend Publishing, 2003.

Idaho Department of Fish and Game. Idaho Wolf Population Management Plan. Boise: Idaho

Department of Fish and Game, 2008 .

Idaho Legislative Wolf Oversight Committee. “Idaho Wolf conservation and Management Plan.”

56th Idaho Legislature, Second Regular Session. Idaho Legislative Wolf Oversight Committee, 2002.

Kimble, David S, Daniel Tyers, Jim Robison-Cox, and Bok F. Sowell. “Aspen Recovery Since

Wolf Reintroduction on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range.” Rangeland Ecological Manager, 2011: 119 — 130.

Krutilla, John. “Conservation reconsidered.” American Economic Review, 1967: 56-87.

Law, Justia U.S.. “2011 Idaho Code:Title 36 Fish and Game.” 2011. / (accessed April 7, 2012).

Smith, Christian A, and Carolyn A Sime. “Policy Issues Related to Wolves in the Northern

Rocky Mountains.” Transactions of the 72nd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Portland: Wildlife Management Institute, 2007.

Smith, Douglas, R Peterson, and DB Huston. “Yellowstone after wolves.” Bioscience, 2003:

330 — 40.

Stahler, DR, B Heinrich, and DW Smith. “Common ravens Corvus corax, preferentially associate with gray wolves, Canis lupus, as a foraging strategy.” Animal Behavior, 2002: 283 — 90.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. he Reintroduction of Gray Wolves to Yellowstone National Park

and Central Idaho: Final Environmental Impact Statement. Helena: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994.

Unsworth, R, L Genova, Wallace, and A Harp. Evaluation of the socio-economic impacts associated with the reintroduction of the Mexican wolf. A component of the five-year program review.Prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Economics. Cambridge: Industrial Economics, 2005.

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of Restored Wolf Populations.” Social and Ecological Benefits of Restored Wolf Populations (Wildlife Management Institute), 2007.

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