The electronic circuits of transmission technology components

In an organization, data is the most important tool. All the processes in any organization are data-related, and all the departments within the organization can communicate by exchanging data through a network. For this to be possible, communication between computers is required. Recently, communication has been streamlined and made efficient and reliable, making life easier. The use of the Open Systems Interconnection model has made communication to be more efficient and reliable. Open Systems Interconnection is defined as a conceptual framework that consists of seven layers that allow computers to communicate with each other through a network. The OSI model was adopted in the 19th century to create an environment that allowed computers to send and receive data faster and reliably. The OSI model consists of seven layers and is in this order: Physical layer, Data-link layer, Network layer, Transport layer, Session layer, Presentation layer, and Application layer. This paper is meant to discuss the use of the OSI Reference Model to describe how each layer of the OSI model represents the communication flow between organizational levels and across departments of an actual hierarchical business.
Physical layer
This is the lowest and the first layer in the OSI model that consists of electronic circuits transmission technology. Data in this layer is transmitted in bits from one node to another. Physical layer responsibilities are establishing, maintaining, and servicing the physical components in a network. In an organization, the layer represents both the electrical and physical components of the system and includes cables used, voltages, and the layout of pins, among other components. In case of any issues within an organization like lack of proper communication, the network personnel dive into the physical layer to check if cables are well connected and if the power cables are well plugged on.

Data-link layer
This is the second layer in the model, and it plays the role of transmission of data in frames from one node to the other within a network. Apart from sending and receiving data frames, it is also responsible for establishing a unique number in every device within the organization network. These unique numbers are responsible for defining the data format and help in error handling. At this layer, several activities allow for proper data flow in the organization, and the activities are physical addressing, data flow control, and error control. The data-link layer is divided into two sub-layers: Logical link control and Media access control sub-layers. The Logical link layer is responsible for bulk data transmission, identifying the address of the receiving layer when data is sent, transferring data from one department to another, and providing logical control. Further, the Media access control sub-layer links the logical link layer and the physical layer.
Network layer
The network layer is the third layer of the OSI model and is responsible for tracking the location of devices on a network. This layer is responsible for choosing the best path for a data packet. The path selection is based on the network conditions of an organization, and priority, among other factors. In this layer, routers are specified and set to route the data efficiently to the computers within the organization.
The physical, data-link, and network layers are tied to the network, and they primarily deal with data transmission and are implemented with both software and hardware.
Transport layer
This is the fourth layer in the OSI model. Its primary function is to ensure messages are transmitted to be received, and sent to other departments without duplication. When data is sent from the upper layers and is received in this layer, it is broken into small segments for easy transmission. By segmentation of data, it creates a point-to-point connection between the source and destination computer making data delivery efficient. Using a set of protocols, data before being sent is broken into small packets, it’s then transmitted, and upon reaching the destination, it’s reassembled. Two protocols are used for data transmission in this layer; Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol. Transmission Control Protocol is used to establish a connection between the hosts and allow for communication through data packets sent via multiple routes. Upon reaching the destination, they are reassembled. User Datagram Protocol is used for data packet transmission.
Session layer
This is the fifth layer of the OSI model, and as the name suggests, the layer is responsible for managing the session between processes. Generally, a session is required for two devices to communicate, and this layer is responsible for both creating and managing these sessions. The session layer is also responsible for data control and synchronization between two devices.
Presentation layer
This is the sixth layer of the OSI model, and it’s also referred to as the syntax layer. It is responsible for preparing and translating the application format to the network format. It allows for encryption and decryption of data to allow for the integrity of the organization’s data. Further, it also handles data compression if the data involved is large.
Application layer
This is considered the top-most layer of the OSI model and acts as a path for users to access the network services for data transmission. This layer is responsible for a wide range of important functions in an organization, including File transfer. File access and management. It is also responsible for mail services and directory services. Applications that work best within this level are:
Web browsers.
Email and messaging clients.
Any other device is interacting with the network for data transmission.
The four layers handle application-related issues and are majorly implemented in software.
The OSI model allows for data transmission through the network. The different layers allow for debugging any network-related problems as the model acts as a guide for troubleshooting the network. The OSI model, Open Systems Interconnection, is defined as a conceptual framework that consists of seven layers that allow computers to communicate with each other through a network. The physical, data-link, and network layers are tied to the network, and they primarily deal with data transmission and are implemented with both software and hardware. The four layers handle application-related issues and are majorly implemented in software.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper