In an organization, data is the most important tool. All the processes in any organization are data-related, and all the departments within the organization can communicate by exchanging data through a network. For this to be possible, communication between computers is required. Recently, communication has been streamlined and made efficient and reliable, making life easier. The use of the Open Systems Interconnection model has made communication to be more efficient and reliable. Open Systems Interconnection is defined as a conceptual framework that consists of seven layers that allow computers to communicate with each other through a network. The OSI model was adopted in the 19th century to create an environment that allowed computers to send and receive data faster and reliably. The OSI model consists of seven layers and is in this order: Physical layer, Data-link layer, Network layer, Transport layer, Session layer, Presentation layer, and Application layer. This paper is meant to discuss the use of the OSI Reference Model to describe how each layer of the OSI model represents the communication flow between organizational levels and across departments of an actual hierarchical business.
This is the lowest and the first layer in the OSI model that consists of electronic circuits transmission technology. Data in this layer is transmitted in bits from one node to another. Physical layer responsibilities are establishing, maintaining, and servicing the physical components in a network. In an organization, the layer represents both the electrical and physical components of the system and includes cables used, voltages, and the layout of pins, among other components. In case of any issues within an organization like lack of proper communication, the network personnel dive into the physical layer to check if cables are well connected and if the power cables are well plugged on.
This is the second layer in the model, and it plays the role of transmission of data in frames from one node to the other within a network. Apart from sending and receiving data frames, it is also responsible for establishing a unique number in every device within the organization network. These unique numbers are responsible for defining the data format and help in error handling. At this layer, several activities allow for proper data flow in the organization, and the activities are physical addressing, data flow control, and error control. The data-link layer is divided into two sub-layers: Logical link control and Media access control sub-layers. The Logical link layer is responsible for bulk data transmission, identifying the address of the receiving layer when data is sent, transferring data from one department to another, and providing logical control. Further, the Media access control sub-layer links the logical link layer and the physical layer.
The network layer is the third layer of the OSI model and is responsible for tracking the location of devices on a network. This layer is responsible for choosing the best path for a data packet. The path selection is based on the network conditions of an organization, and priority, among other factors. In this layer, routers are specified and set to route the data efficiently to the computers within the organization.
The physical, data-link, and network layers are tied to the network, and they primarily deal with data transmission and are implemented with both software and hardware.
This is the fourth layer in the OSI model. Its primary function is to ensure messages are transmitted to be received, and sent to other departments without duplication. When data is sent from the upper layers and is received in this layer, it is broken into small segments for easy transmission. By segmentation of data, it creates a point-to-point connection between the source and destination computer making data delivery efficient. Using a set of protocols, data before being sent is broken into small packets, it’s then transmitted, and upon reaching the destination, it’s reassembled. Two protocols are used for data transmission in this layer; Transmission Control Protocol and User Datagram Protocol. Transmission Control Protocol is used to establish a connection between the hosts and allow for communication through data packets sent via multiple routes. Upon reaching the destination, they are reassembled. User Datagram Protocol is used for data packet transmission.
This is the fifth layer of the OSI model, and as the name suggests, the layer is responsible for managing the session between processes. Generally, a session is required for two devices to communicate, and this layer is responsible for both creating and managing these sessions. The session layer is also responsible for data control and synchronization between two devices.
This is the sixth layer of the OSI model, and it’s also referred to as the syntax layer. It is responsible for preparing and translating the application format to the network format. It allows for encryption and decryption of data to allow for the integrity of the organization’s data. Further, it also handles data compression if the data involved is large.
This is considered the top-most layer of the OSI model and acts as a path for users to access the network services for data transmission. This layer is responsible for a wide range of important functions in an organization, including File transfer. File access and management. It is also responsible for mail services and directory services. Applications that work best within this level are:
Email and messaging clients.
Any other device is interacting with the network for data transmission.
The four layers handle application-related issues and are majorly implemented in software.
The OSI model allows for data transmission through the network. The different layers allow for debugging any network-related problems as the model acts as a guide for troubleshooting the network. The OSI model, Open Systems Interconnection, is defined as a conceptual framework that consists of seven layers that allow computers to communicate with each other through a network. The physical, data-link, and network layers are tied to the network, and they primarily deal with data transmission and are implemented with both software and hardware. The four layers handle application-related issues and are majorly implemented in software.
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