The Complexity of Gender Bias in the Modern World


Sexism is prejudice based on an individuals gender; it primarily effects women and it can be conscious or unconscious and manifest in a variety of ways. In todays society, there are more complex definitions of gender that need to be taken into account. The psychological processing that underlies stereotyping can be explained through the social role theory because it emphasizes observable behavior of other group members (Koenig & Eagly 2013). The process of learning social attributes of a persons own gender is known as gender socialization (Coman 2016). Gender bias in academia has been acknowledged but has not improved much over the last two decades. The different factors that contribute to women being underrepresented in the higher ranks of the academic world will be discussed along with the gender identification theory and medical model. There is a dissolution between what America actually offers and the failure to do so. Throughout history, practitioners in the field of psychology and law have disregarded diversity as a worthy factory (Barongan 2006). Gender and gender identity are controlled by societal norms and the school system continues to be divided on how to address those challenges (Miller 2018). The complexity of gender issues has put pressure on lawmakers to implement equality under the law.

Keywords: Gender, Academia, Identity

The Complexity of Gender Bias in the Modern World

The goal of psychology has previously been to understand and pinpoint explanations for human behavior that are universal (Barongan 2006). The social role theory has focused on understanding key gender stereotypes and their impact but it is extremely binary. Women not only face a glass ceiling but also a sticky floor which keeps them in follower positions; they are at a disadvantage before even considering a leadership position (Braun, Stegmann, Hernandez, Junker, and van Dick 2017). The gender identity theory is an educational approach to understand and reduce the gender gap in education (Vantieghem, Vermeersch, & Houtte 2014). Currently, the education system has inherited all the gender norms and the attributions that follow. Anti-bullying laws have made strides, but the policies need to focus more on equality and that means recognition through the curriculum (Miller 2018). Most research has focused on gender differences in high school students even though the gender gap is notable in higher educational settings (Vantieghem et al. 2014).

In the seventies, there was an emphasis on low educational achievement of young girls; their poor performances were because of a deficit framework (Vantieghem et al. 2014). It was attributed that girls do not obtain certain qualities and the ones that are possessed are low confidence, leading to anxiety and a strong fear of success (Vantieghem et al. 2014). Studies have shown that young girls attribute their failure with lack of ability versus young boys that attribute the failure with lack of effort (Coman 2016).

Young girls who did the hard work and scored the same or better than young boys were considered to have passive and compliant learning styles (Vantieghem et al. 2014). The young boys were characterized as having active and curious learning styles (Vantieghem et al. 2014). The researchers back in the seventies said that textbooks lacked positive role models for girls and that it was no surprise they would be less confident and docile (Vantieghem et al. 2014). Family structure is the main resource in which children begin gender socialization; mothers teach their daughters that they will have maternal or reproductive roles in the future (Coman 2016). The underlying reason for women underestimating their own abilities is the result of gender stereotypes enforced by society (Coman 2016). Women are defined by rational terms while men are defined by occupational terms (Coman 2016). Mens success is defined and explained through internal causes while womens success is based off external or circumstantial abilities (Coman 2016). Women are predisposed to believe that their success is dependent upon luck while men are equipped naturally for success (Coman 2016).

During the nineties, the attention shifted to the boys and it was the first-time research showed girls outperforming boys with higher grades contrary to all expectations (Vantieghem et al. 2014). Research started to become focused on non-cognitive skills that would explain the gender gap in academic performance (Vantieghem et al. 2014).

The culture of masculinity and femininity has been engrained in American society and has a profound impact on future generations of men and women (Vantieghem et al. 2014). By the end of the nineties, masculinity and femininity were considered multidimensional and multifactorial which meant that these traits were found in all aspects of life (Vantieghem et al. 2014).

Gender socialization is how children learn the norms, expectations, and rules of how to behave in context with their gender. Studying gender roles and bias is not met with adequate appreciation. Therefore, there is less grant funding and fewer publications for research in this field. Does academic psychology have a gender bias in the modern world?

Gender bias exists worldwide and is seen through research grant review processes; underrepresentation of women in academia is not uncommon (Morgan, Hawkins, & Lundine 2018). This results in lower funding for women and adds to the perception that men are stronger leaders (Morgan et al. 2018). Gender stereotypes and the lack of support in policy changes keeps women from positions of leadership and publication; this is a manifestation of historical and systemic gender bias within academia (Morgan et al. 2018).

The structure of most academic careers falls in line with a traditional model geared towards men; it is one that is time-flexible with a spouse at home (Mayer & Tikka 2008). Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have parental leave policies that help female academics balance family and career life, which have been suggested as models for the United States to emulate (Mayer & Tikka 2008). Family-Friendly policies foster gender equality because the policies include things like paid maternity leave for both parents (Mayer & Tikka 2008).

The representation of women varies depending upon country and which study of discipline; there has been a steady increase in women obtaining their doctorates across every discipline over the past two decades, but female academic staff has not seen any improvements in the past decade (Mayer & Tikka 2008). It is not a surprise that women in the social sciences are more represented than in other areas like engineering (Mayer & Tikka 2008). Globally, women are expected to be caregivers and are punished for doing so. Women also experience societal stereotypes which result in unfounded biases (Mayer & Tikka 2008).

The social role theory serves as an explanation of gender stereotypes; peoples beliefs about social groups within their society are directly related and derived from their experiences with those group members in their normal or expected social roles (Koenig & Eagly 2013). There is a common misconception that changes in group roles equates to changing stereotypes (Koenig & Eagly 2013). A role is a certain set of expectations that are usually associated with some type of social position, given context, or type of setting (Koenig & Eagly 2013). Behaviors have been categorized and organized into social roles throughout daily life (Koenig & Eagly 2013). People observe behaviors using social roles because social life is understood as which occupation is held, type of family, how friendships are formed, different leisure actives, and other roles that are inherently associated with specific behaviors (Koenig & Eagly 2013). Stereotypes are formed from the observations of behavior within certain groups reflecting social reality (Koenig & Eagly 2013). The social environment is structured by social roles; thus, people learn to ascribe different roles to specific social groups (Koenig & Eagly 2013).

Gender socialization is the main component to understand how gender-related attitudes become internalized; gender stereotypes continue to be enforced through century old concepts and it limits representation for women in almost all social institutions (Coman 2016). This process takes place through family settings such as childrens interactions with parents and their formative years (Coman 2016). The powerfully driven social representations of gender stereotypes specifically limit womens rights to express negative or aggressive feelings, claim professional achievements based solely on their level of competence or skill sets, and the right to create their own standard of beauty (Coman 2016).

There is an overlap between social roles of women and bias (Braun et al. 2017). Policymakers and social scientist continue to be concerned about the underrepresentation of women in the STEM fields (Stoet & Geary 2018). The STEM fields encompass science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Sex differences and academic strengths are correlated with certain attitudes pertaining to STEM degrees; more women have been in pursuit of STEM degrees than in the past and have forced an increase in gender equality (Stoet & Geary 2018). However, countries with high levels of gender equality express the largest gender gaps which has been coined as the educational-gender-equality paradox (Stoet & Geary 2018). It has been found that women and men have near similar abilities and academic strengths but yet there is still a relationship between sex differences and college graduation rates (Stoet & Geary 2018). Women obtain fewer college degrees in STEM related disciplines because of gender roles and stereotypes; there is a loss of womens capacity somewhere between high school and university (Stoet & Geary 2018). Countries with less gender equality produce more female STEM graduates than those with policies in effect that encourage womens empowerment in the educational field (Stoet & Geary 2018). Sex differences and their impact vary from country to country, but there is a definitive link between measures of gender equality and educational gaps (Stoet & Geary 2018).

The promotion of equality tied in with social justice has encouraged some of the progress made in regard to women accessing higher education through different legal policies (Loots & Walker 2015). However, studies are still reporting that systemic gender bias and inequalities are prevalent in higher education (Loots & Walker 2015).

The education system has yet to address gender identity from kindergarten to university levels (Miller 2018). Educators are left severely unprepared and in a grey area on how to address gender identity (Miller 2018). With more awareness on the topic, schools can liberate gender identities and take away the stigma (Miller 2018). How is gender identity defined? It is how an individual wants to be seen through the eyes of others in the world; it has nothing to do with biological sex. Gender identity is self-determined, it is not singular, and does not conform to strict boundaries (Miller 2018). The education system is set up to produce members of society that will function within a specific set of guidelines; the system unintentionally forces conformity (Miller 2018). The school system holds a mirror to Americas social, cultural, and economic climate (Miller 2018).

Gender dysphoria is a condition where an individual experiences distress with their own biological gender and feels a strong connection with the opposite gender; this should not be considered a disorder because it implies there is an abnormality (Miller 2018). The medical model focuses on binary identities for sickness and mental health (Miller 2018). How does this country begin to reframe gender identity? If policies can be implemented to encourage attention on the topic of gender identity in the school system, it could lead to increased capacities for understanding rather than simply tolerance (Miller 2018).

The gender identity theory assigns individuals based off masculinity or femininity, bypasses the standpoint of purely biological sex, and therefore can accurately be utilized to study both sides of gender order (Vantieghem et al. 2014). Western society has evolved and with the influence of feminism, women have total freedom to take on more masculine traits (Vantieghem et al. 2014). It poses the question, is there a relationship between gender identity and academic motivation? Present research should focus on both sexes and include both men and women in the sample at the same time. It would be beneficial to focus on the experiences of gender typical people versus those who do not conform, gender role conformity and sex differences, along with the pressure of societal norms (Vantieghem et al. 2014). It is because of this that the gender identity theory could explain achievement, motivation, and interest differences between boys and girls and how it connects to the outside world (Vantieghem et al. 2014). The gender identity theory does not focus on biological sex, instead it emphasizes the impact of masculinity and femininity impact on culture (Vantieghem et al. 2014).

Humans are conditioned to assign gender roles and with that comes stereotypes. Women are talked about more than men because they are underrepresented and the research backs that up. However, men suffer from gender bias as well in regard to what traits they are allowed to have. Even in this modern world, it is looked down upon if a man is a stay at home dad. The best place to start overhauling the complex topic of gender bias is within the education system. Western society is one where opportunities are supposed to be endless but women are still limited. The education system does not need to be afraid to talk about gender identity or gender bias. The academic curriculum needs to include these topics.

Policymakers need to focus on implementing laws that provide citizens with an open dialogue. It is important that western society shifts perspectives and actively tries to stop perpetuating gender roles and stereotypes. The demand for conformity in the modern world is astounding. Women continue to remain in secondary positions in American society because of the traditional attitudes concerning gender roles. The rise of different womens movement has brought attention to the issue of gender bias but is not shedding the right light to elicit change. The current climate is quite hostile. Outside of the western world, there is a lack of historical data which makes the development of gender equality hard to study (Sani & Quaranta 2017).

Undermining the gender hierarchy occurs when individuals behave in ways that challenge current gender norms; scholars do not know the actual conditions that cause changes to the gender system (Pierotti, Lake, Lewis 2018). Gender equality is more likely to occur when the country is stable; high levels of economic security are tied to favorable and important social changes (Inglehart & Ponarin 2017). Research on parents and their perspective on gender roles and stereotypes suggest that those who have children abide by a strict set of guidelines, they do not want to deviate from traditional roles (Endendijk, Derks, & Mesman 2018). The way society operates right now suggest that little change is going to occur. It may be as good as it gets.


  • COMAN. (2016). A broader perspective of gender socialization across four social institutions.Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braov: Series VII: Social Sciences, Law, Vol 9(58), Iss 2, Pp 65-72 (2016), (2), 65. Retrieved from
  • Barongan, C. (2006). Review of A Comprehensive Approach to Multicultural Competence: A Review of Race, Culture, Psychology, and Law.Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology,12(1), 169171.
  • Braun, S., Stegmann, S., Hernandez Bark, A. S., Junker, N. M., & van Dick, R. (2017). , : Gender bias in implicit followership theories.Journal of Applied Social Psychology,47(7), 377388.
  • CMAJ2018 April 23;190:E487-8. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.180188
  • Dotti Sani, G & Quaranta, M. (2017). The Best Is Yet to Come? Attitudes Toward Gender Roles Among Adolescents in 36 Countries.Sex Roles,77(12), 3045.
  • Endendijk, J. J., Derks, B., & Mesman, J. (2018). Does Parenthood Change Implicit Gender-Role Stereotypes and Behaviors?Journal of Marriage and Family, (1),
  • Inglehart, R. F., Ponarin, E., & Inglehart, R. C. (2017). Cultural Change, Slow and Fast: The Distinctive Trajectory of Norms Governing Gender Equality and Sexual Orientation.Social Forces,95(4), 13131340.
  • Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: Observations of groups roles shape stereotypes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,107(3), 371392.
  • Loots, S., & Walker, M. (2015). Shaping a gender equality policy in higher education: which human capabilities matter?Gender & Education,27(4), 361375.
  • Mayer, A. L., & Tikka, P. M. (2008). Familyfriendly policies and gender bias in academia.Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management,30(4), 363-374. doi:10.1080/13600800802383034
  • Miller, S. J. (n.d.). Reframing Schooling to Liberate Gender Identity.Multicultural Perspectives,20(2),
  • Pierotti, R. S., Lake, M., & Lewis, C. (2018). Equality on His Terms: Doing and Undoing Gender through Mens Discussion Groups.Gender & Society,32(4), 540562.
  • Stoet, G., & Geary, D. C. (2018). The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.Psychological Science,29(4), 581593.
  • Vantieghem, Vermeersch, & Houtte, (2014). Why Gender disappeared from the gender gap: (re-)introducing gender identity theory to educational gender gap research.Social Psychology of Education,17(3), 357381.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper