Occupational Stress in a Public Organization
How Stress Affects Behavior and Operation of a Public Organization
How occupational stress effects the behavior and operation of a public organization has been extensively researched and has been found to have both positive and negative effects on the operations of a public organization. The level of stress and the employee’s responses to the stress will determine whether the stress is a positive or negative element in the employee’s level of performance. Over the years, many theories have been hypothesized in the interest of better understanding occupational stress. These theories evaluate how the body is initially exposed to stress, how the body responds to the stress, whether the body adapts to the stress or avoids it, and the lingering or long-term effects of the stress on the body. Excessive amounts of stress over extended periods of time can result in stress related medical problems such as hypertension and exhaustion. In the workplace, unhealthy levels of stress can result in absenteeism, lower levels of productivity, and high turnover rates. To this end, many public organizations offer stress management programs as a service to their employees. If positive results are achieved, these programs can have the effect of reducing stress related illnesses of the employee, increasing productivity, lowering absenteeism, and reducing turnover. However, these programs have oftentimes not been found to be effective in reducing the employee’s level of job satisfaction. In addition to the stress management programs, the management staff in a public organization can have a positive effect on stress reduction rates by simply providing social support for their employees in times of high stress.
Occupational stress is a common occurrence in the in a public organization. While a healthy amount of stress is normal, excessive amounts of stress can negatively effect the operational functioning of a public organization. If the management and employees of the organization are effected by excessive stress, the potential for health related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, tension headaches, low back pain and decreased immune functions increases. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991). Excessive stress has also been associated with an increase in the occurrences of mental health disorders. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991). With the increase in stress related illnesses the likelihood of absenteeism increases and productivity can decrease. Therefore, in order to increase the functionality of a business, it is essential to control stress within the company. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of stress on the behavior and operation of a public organization including its employees, managerial staff, and its stress management programs.
Stress and Its Causes
Stress is a negative emotional experience that is the result of a stressor in the environment. Taylor (2009). A stressor in the environment can be almost anything that creates a negative emotional reaction. For example, a traffic jam, noisy children, a pending deadline, or anticipating giving a speech for an audience of strangers are all examples of stressors. Stress results in a biochemical, physiological, cognitive, or behavioral change within the person experiencing the stress. These changes within the individual are directed towards altering the stressful event or adapting to its changes. Taylor (2009).
Historically, there have been many theories evaluating what stress is and human reactions to stress. In 1932, Sir Walter Canon developed the “Fight or Flight” theory. This theory surmised that the physiological response to stress equips the individual to either attack the stressor or to flee. Taylor (2009). This theory supports that a natural human reaction to stress is to either overcome it or to free oneself from it. In other words, based on the “Fight or Flight” theory, it is not natural for humans to fail to react to a stressful situation.
Another historical theory studying stress is somewhat opposite of Canon’s theory is Hans Seyle’s theory of “General Adaptation.” Seyle’s Theory divided stress into four stages — alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion and death. Neylan (1998). In short Seyle’s theory studied the effect of a stressful agent, such as cold, on lab rats (alarm reaction). Neylan (1998). The rats then developed physiological syndromes separate from the agent (resistance). Neylan (1998). As a result of the resistance phase and the trauma to the body a form of exhaustion is likely (exhaustion). In more severe cases, death is possible. Neylan (1998). Seyle’s theory depicts how stress can begin in humans, trigger other physiological problems as a result of trying to cope with the stress and if these physiological changes persist or are left untreated can lead to more serious health related issues.
Each of these early theories will assist in understanding the phenomenon of stress in the workplace and how its affects the health and productivity of the public organization.
Overview of Stress in a Public Organization
Occupational stress can be caused by several events. Stress causing events at work include too much work, conflict with co-workers, too much email, conflicts with citizens/customers, unreasonable demands, and travel or commuting problems. Denhardt, Denhardt, and Aristiqueta (2009). Many other symptoms are listed as contributing to occupational stress and it is important to note that the more of these symptoms that an employee experiences the more likely they are to experience a high level of stress and mental or physical health problems associated with stress.
Organizational or occupational stress can be divided into categories that classify and analyze behavior. Included in those categories are the Cybernetic Theory and the Ethological Theory. Cooper (2002). Another theory of stress is the Cognitive Activation Theory of stress. Each theory addresses a different approach to stress, how stress affects employees, employers, and the overall productivity in the organization.
The Cybernetics Theory
Cybernetics concerns the functioning of self-regulating systems. Edwards (1992). The principles of the Cybernetics Theory can be summarized as follows: The input function senses the environment, and transmits this to the comparator which evaluates the sensed environment with the reference criterion. If the comparison reveals a discrepancy between the sensed environment and the reference criterion, the output function attempts to alter the environment or eliminate the discrepancy. Edwards (1992). A further illustration of the Cybernetic Theory in terms is follows: The five human senses perceive the environment and transmit this signal to the brain. The brain and the other parts of the human body interpret this signal and compare it with either current expectation held by the person and their abilities or what were once their expectations and abilities. If a discrepancy results between the signal that the senses have sent to the brain and what the expectations are, the body attempts to alter or eliminate the discrepancy.
A possible cursory summary of how the Cybernetic Theory depicts stress in the public organization is as follows. Company goals (sensed environment) that are placed on the employee by the administration represent the source of stress for the employee if these goals are not readily attainable based on prior experience or expectations (reference criterion). The employee will assesses these goals (comparator) and conclude whether or not they are readily attainable. (Input function). If the goals are not readily attainable, the employee will experience strain or stress and attempt to eliminate the stress or strain (Output function.) Eliminating the stress could take on the form of complying or resisting. Resisting could result in decreased productivity, absenteeism, or stress related illness.
The Ethological Theory of stress hypothesizes that stress occurs due to a perceived challenge of the status quo along with a physical experience. Greenberg, Carr, and Summers (2002). A stressor that challenges the organism’s ability to maintain the basic necessities of life known as homeostasis, trigger a distinct reaction by the organism — it will cope by either removing the stressor or complying with it. Greenberg, Carr, and Summers (2002). Under this theory, the organism typically responds physiologically either by neural or endocrinal responses and the extent of this physiological response is determined by the extent of the stress. Greenberg, Carr, and Summers (2002). In relation to stress and the organization, the Ethological Theory can be summarized as follows: The work environment challenges the employee’s ability to maintain what the employee perceives as basic life necessities. The employee’s job may be affected by the stress or the lack of productivity resulting from the stress. This, in turn, triggers a coping response by the employee and the employee will either cope with the stress by removing the stress, removing himself from the stress, or complying with it.
Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress
In this theory, the stress itself is an alarm to the employee and the response to the stress depends on the acquired expectancies that the employee has. Eriksen H.R., Murison, R., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). If the acquired expectancies held by the employee are positive and perceived as attainable, then the response to the stress alarm will be positive and non-threatening. On the other hand, if the acquired expectancies held by the employee are negative and perceived as unattainable, then the stress alarm will be perceived as a threat to the employee. The stress alarm, therefore, can actually assist the employee to improve her performance and is necessary especially, if positive perceptions regarding the challenges of the work environment exist. The response to the stress under the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress, provided that the exceptions held by the employee are positive, is healthy and necessary for survival and productivity. Eriksen H.R., Murison, R., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). Under this theory, emotional and physical health within the individual is sustained through a positive expectation for the outcomes, compliance with the expectations, or through resisting the stress altogether. Eriksen H.R., Murison, R., Pensgaard, a.M., Ursin, H. (2005). A summary chart outlining these different theories on stress and their potential effects on the organization follows.
A Comparison of Theories of Stress and How They Affect Organizational Operations
Effect on the Organization
Fight or Flight
The stress produces physiological responses in the employee that equip the employee to either adjust to the stress or flee.
The employee uses the body’s physiological responses to the stress to help sustain itself during the period of stress.
The effect depends on if the employee is able to cope with the stressful situation. If she is not, she will endure the “flight” response and avoid the stress which could result in absenteeism or turnover.
Stress is divided into stages — exposure to the stressor, resistance of the stressor, exhaustion from the resistance which could become progressively worse if not controlled.
The employee’s natural response is to resist the stress. This could lead to stress related health issues.
The employee’s resisting the stress will likely have a negative effect on the organization and the health of the employee. The productivity of the employee may suffer and the as well as the employee’s health.
The employee’s senses perceive the stressor and transmit this stressor to the brain and other parts of the body. The body interprets this signal and compares it to what the expectations are or what the prior experiences. Any discrepancy is eliminated.
An employee will either naturally comply with the source of the stress or eliminate it.
The effect depends on how the employee reacts to the stress. If the employee chooses to comply with source of the stress, which are usually the demands of the organization, the organization will benefit from the increase in productivity. Otherwise, the organization will suffer because the employee will avoid the stressful situation leading to absenteeism or turnover.
Stress is perceived as a threat on the employee’s ability to maintain the status quo. The stress is accompanied by a neural or endocrinal response in the employee.
Because the stress is a threat to the employee’s livelihood, the employee will experience a need to either cope with the stress or to eliminate it.
The effect depends on the ability to cope by the employee. If the employee adjusts to the level of stress present in the organization, the stress will not adversely affect the organization, but may affect the health of the employee.
Stress is perceived by the employee as either threatening or non-threatening based on the employee’s perceptions
If the outcomes are perceived as non- threatening, then the employee will use the stress to assist her in attaining the goals.
Since the stress is can actually motivate the employee to attain the company’s goals, the stress can actually assist in productivity.
How Management or Administration Can Affect Organizational Stress
Stress has also been found to exist in high levels in the management or administration divisions of a public organization. Because the management of the organization is responsible for ensuring the effective functioning of the organization, it is possible the stress that the management experiences will oftentimes be filtered down to the employees. Likewise, if at the management level, the stress level is controlled and kept to a healthy level, the employees are less likely to suffer from work related stress. On the other hand, the management can act as a buffer or protector of the employees regarding stress. The effect of managerial stress on employees has been researched and the key questions examined is whether managerial stress acts as a buffer or level of protection for employee stress or whether it has the opposite effect to increase employee stress. The study was conducted on entrepreneurs and managers, but based on the scope of this report, only the results of the managers will be reported.
The ways in which managers could buffer or reduce the stress of their employees and whether these methods worked were studied. Afzalur (1998). One of the primary methods studied includes the benefits of social support given by the mangers and the effects that it had on the employee’s stress level. Social support for work related purposes is defined as the support availability in the time of need from one’s supervisor. Afzalur (1998). Social support is hypothesized to interact with stress in that when a person receives less social support from one’s supervisor, the amount of stress is significantly higher than when a person receives higher levels of social support. Afzalur (1998). Past studies in this area have been inconclusive as some studies have revealed that social support is a buffer towards the stress of the company’s employees while other studies have found no correlation. Afzalur (1998).
In a recent study reviewed by Afzalur on the relationship between social support and occupational stress, a negative correlation between stress and social support was found for the managers studied. Afzalur (1998). In other words, the presence of social support from the management had the effect of lowering the stress of the employees. This is significant because it shows that a manager in an organization can act as a buffer or a form of protection against stress.
Also studied in terms of managers was the presence of the characteristic of the locus of control and the effect that this has on stress in an organization. The locus of control is defined as a personality variable where a person believes that she can control her circumstances and events affecting them. (1998). A locus of control can be either internal or external — individuals who have an internal locus of control believe that the events in their lives are generally the result of their own behavior and actions while individuals who have an external locus of control believe that events in their lives are generally determined by chance, fate, or other people. Afzalur (1998). A higher locus of control is considered to be a moderating effect of stress. In other words, a manager with a higher locus of control is more likely to act as a buffer in a time of stress than one who has a lower locus of control. In the study reported by Afzalur, the findings were that a manager with internal locus of control should be selected for high-stress jobs. Afzalur (1998).
Overall the study found that the locus of control was found to be a more important variable than social support relating to occupational stress and that management can demonstrate a positive effect on organizational stress particularly if the managers have a high external locus of control — believe that they can control the events around them. Another way that the study found that management could reduce occupational stress was to be available to provide social support for the employees.
The Effect of Stress on Employees
Stress can lead to serious health care issues in the workplace. It is estimated that more than 10 million American workers suffer from stress related problems. Denhardt, Denhardt, and Aristiqueta (2009). As a consequence, as many as 60%-90% of doctor visits have been found to be for stress related disorders. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991). Substantial research has been performed on how stress affects the employee’s productivity at work and, not surprisingly, stress has been found to have a negative effect on an employee’s productivity and overall performance at work. In one study, four types of relationships were identified between job stress and job performance — curvilinear/U shaped, negative linear, positive linear, or no relationship. Muhammad (1985). The first type of possible result was curvilinear/U-shaped results where as the level of stress rises, the job performance rises, but the level of performance will decrease as the amount of stress continues to rise. Denhardt, Denhardt, and Aristiqueta (2009). The next type of possible result for this study was a negative linear where stress will steadily decrease job performance. The next type of result possible is a positive linear where the stress will steadily increase the job performance. A final possible result is that there was no relationship between the level of stress and job performance. The data was collected between middle management and blue collar workers in a large Canadian organization. Muhammad (1985). The results of the study showed that Bivariate multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses generally supported the prevalence of a negative linear relationship between job stress and supervisory ratings of performance. Muhammad (1985). In other words, the study revealed that stress had a negative effect on the employee’s job performance and the ratings that an employee obtained during a performance review.
Additional research conducted regarding the effects of stress and job performance supports these findings. For example, one study performed was a one year longitudinal study conducted of 52 social welfare workers using the conservation of resources model (COR) as the theoretical framework. Wright and Cropanzano (1998). The study examined the relationship of stress to job performance, job turnover, and overall job satisfaction of the workers. Wright and Cropanzano (1998). The research revealed that emotional exhaustion was unrelated to job satisfaction, but was related to job performance and turnover. Wright and Cropanzano (1998).
The level of stress experienced by the group of social welfare workers did not affect their satisfaction with their job; however, as was the case with the Muhammad study, the level of stress was related to the performance and the subsequent turnover of the employees. This also demonstrates the “Fight or Flight” response. It is presumed that the social workers attempted to adjust to the level of stress that they were being confronted with, “fight,” although the length of time that they endured the stress is unknown. Once they could not conform to the demands of the job, the “flight” component became evident and the social workers left the job.
Stress and absenteeism
It has been estimated that about 50% of worker absenteeism was controllable through attention to the physical and emotional needs of employees. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991).
In addition, the number of employees who received stress related disability pension in a study conducted was estimated to be at approximately 30%. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). Furthermore, of this group, the number who returned to work was lower than any other group who received disabilities for other reasons. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997).
The stress related disability phenomena demonstrates the theory of General Adaptation. For example, the alarm reaction phase is the point in which the employee is first exposed to the stress. At that point, the employee’s body responds to the stress as a form of adaptation. This adaptation can take on several forms as elevated blood pressure, increased levels of anxiety or other physiological symptoms. As a result of the body’s coping with the stress, the exhaustion stage becomes evident and the employee can begin to suffer from more severe health related illnesses in the exhaustion stage. This is the stage where absenteeism or stress related disability claims are more likely to become chronic.
How Managing Stress Can Lead to Positive Results
Businesses have been estimated to lose approximately $150 billion dollars annually as a result of stress related absenteeism, decreased productivity, and disability. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991). Most employers have now implemented stress management programs to minimize stress related emotional and physical disorders. These stress related programs do not only benefit disorders that are directly related to stress — they also have incidental benefits to the company such as: enhanced employee morale, increased corporate image, ability to retain and attract key personnel, consistency of a corporate product, and the image of a healthy company from an insider’s perspective. Weiss, Fielding, and Baum (1991). Because stress and stress related illnesses are so prevalent, many employers have put stress related programs in place, but the method of stress reduction used will greatly affect the success of the program and whether long-term results can be sustained that could leading to increased productivity for the organization.
Van der Hek and Plomp addressed the various methods of stress management and the outcomes that occurred with each program. The different types of stress programs that were studied for their results included: Individual level intervention that involves stress management concentrated on the individual. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). Individual level intervention does not implement any stress management within the organization although this may ultimately be the catalyst for the stress. The next level is the individual/organization level intervention that involves stress management concentrated on building a better person/environment fit through social support or job enrichment. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). This level of stress management involves both individual stress management techniques and an organizational component for stress reduction. The third level studied was the organizational level intervention that involves organizational development plans and restructuring of jobs within the organization. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The organizational level concentrated solely on re-organization of various aspects within the company as a means of stress management. Different public occupational groups were studied in each category and a summary of the results follows.
Community health workers were studied an individual stress management program. Two groups were studied for three weeks and group one was 27 employees and group two was 13 employees. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). Stress management at the individual level begins with an educational phase where participants learn about the causes of stress. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The invention continued with the implementation of a type of cognitive component such as coping skills such or time management which is intended to alter the way that an employee structures her work day. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The session ends with a form of meditation or relaxation exercise which is intended to target the symptoms of stress such as elevated blood pressure or muscle tension. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The results of this group varied with group size or length of the session.
Of the two groups studied positive changes in stress levels occurred at the end of the first session for both groups; however these changes were only present at the second session, one week later for the second group — the smaller group of 13. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). No solid explanation for the difference was given, however the indication was that the therapists interaction with the first group, the larger group of 27, affected outcome of the results. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). What this indicates is that when occupational stress management is performed using this type of individual method, positive reductions in stress are possible, but the long-term effects on the employee’s production in the organization are speculative because the results may not be able to be sustained by the employee. One possible explanation for this is that the possible source of the stress, the work environment, is not being altered or addressed. Other public organization employee groups studied at the individual level were teachers, nurses, health service workers, community nurses, post office employees, hospital cleaners, senior safety officers, and highway maintenance workers. A summary of the groups with the highest likelihood of success for this method is as follows: Van der Hek and Plomp (1997).
Length of Session
Positive Results Achieved?
Teachers — Two groups studied one year apart.
Group 1: 12 weeks; two one hour sessions per week
Group 2: Eight weeks; 1.5 hours per week
Yes. Both groups experienced a decrease in stress levels and increase in preventative coping.
Nurses — Two groups studied two years apart.
Group 1: Three weeks; two 50 minute sessions per week
Group 2: Five weeks; two 90 minute sessions per week
Yes. But the extent of stress levels depends and the likelihood of positive results depends on the duration of the nurse’s practice — the longer a nurse practices the more stress will be experienced.
Health Service Workers — One group studied
Six weeks; two sessions per week
Yes in areas such as relaxation, relationships, and dealing with emotions. Slight results in time management and introductory educational sessions.
Length of Session
Positive Results Achieved?
Community Nurses — One group studied.
Thee day workshop
Yes in decreasing mental and physical symptoms, but No as to increasing job performance or productivity. A portion of the sample was resistant to the stress benefit.
Post Office Employees — One group studied.
Three sessions given and averaged
Yes. Significant decline in sickness, absence, anxiety, depression. No changes in job satisfaction or organizational commitment.
Hospital Cleaners — One group studied.
Three weeks; three 15 minute sessions per week.
Yes regarding neck and shoulder tension. Decrease in absenteeism was also shown by the control group so not likely attributable to the stress management program.
Senior Safety Officer
Five weeks; four hour sessions per week
Yes and after 18 months the improvements were still evident, but not to the same extent as first experienced.
Highway Maintenance Workers
Two weeks; one hour per day
Yes. Limited support for improved absenteeism as a result of the relaxation training; Effects diminished after six months; no improvement otherwise
Based on these studies, the effect positive of stress management varies highly based on the occupation of the group studied, the duration and sequence of the sessions, the training of the professional, and the perceptions of the employee. Achieving positive and lasting results with occupational stress management is about knowing one’s organization and employees. However, if positive and lasting results can be achieved, the benefits to the employee’s health, the organization’s absenteeism and its productivity are obvious.
The next type of occupational stress management researched by Van der Hek and Plomp was the individual organizational method which focuses on intervention between both the employee and the organization. In the study, one group of teachers were studied and one group of hospital staff. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). For the group of teachers, there were two groups studied for six weeks at 1.5 hours per week. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The method of individual intervention was administered by stress inoculation training (SIT) while the organizational intervention component was administered by co-worker support groups directed at improving the individual organization relationship. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The emphasis at these group meetings was to share problems, give support, share coping strategies, and to listen. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The results were that the SIT individual intervention was successful in reducing self reported stress while the co-worker group was not. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). Neither group was successful in reducing classroom level anxiety. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997).
The group of hospital the employees were studied for 10-15 weeks at 1.5 hours per week. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The results were sketchy but the conclusion was that the individual-organizational method appeared to be effective in alleviating stress, but the rate of non-completions of the program were significant and detracted from the ability to report overall success rates. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). This supports the assertion that in any stress related program, the ultimate success of the program depends on the employee’s level of involvement, dedication, and attitude.
The final method of occupational stress reduction addressed by Van de Hek and Plomp was intervention at the organizational level. For this study, the two groups studied were hospital staffs and a management teams. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). For the hospital staff intervention, all members of the organization were required to participate for one year. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The results were that any hospital that implemented organizational stress management programs had fewer claims related to stress induced disability and medical malpractice over the year than hospitals that did not. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997).
For the management level organizational intervention, all management level employees were studied for 13 months. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). The results were that the burnout rates decreased and remained decreased for a period of up to four months, but were diminishing by the ninth month. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997). However, the intervention did not improve turnover rates. Van der Hek and Plomp (1997).
In summary, of the three methods of organizational stress management, the organizational method yielded the most significant results across the board. However, the duration that the positive results continued was not reported. It follows that stress management is more likely if it is an ongoing process that focuses on reducing stress at the organizational level. While with the two other methods, different occupations report improvements related to the stress management programs, the results varied greatly depending on the group studied, the duration of the treatment, and the level of involvement and participation of the employee. These variables may have also been present at the organizational level; however, of the three types of stress management programs studied, the organizational level of intervention yield the greatest improvements in numbers alone.
Organizational stress is present is most work environments, but it is not always a negative. As stress related theories such as Cognitive Activation have demonstrated, occupational stress can actually motivate or improve job performance. In many circumstances, however, stress can have a negative effect on job performance and the employee’s health. Employees suffering from stress can endure stress related illnesses such hypertension, and if not treated stress can lead serious health problems and work related disabilities. Regarding the employee’s work performance, stress can have adverse effects on productivity, absenteeism, and turnover rates. To improve the effects of stress many organizations implement stress management programs that have varied effects depending on the occupation, the employee’s involvement, and the type of intervention used. Still, even without stress management programs, stress can be managed on the job through basic management techniques, such as social support for employees, and especially if the management staff has a high external locus of control.
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- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!