Lifting the Corporate Veil Limited essay paper

Lifting the Corporate Veil

Limited liability and separate personality

The principles using Salomon v Salomon .Co

Exceptions about Lifting the in Different Countries

Lifting the Veil in UK

The Element of Lifting Corporate Veil

Some doctrines about Corporate Veil



Parent – Subsidiaries Companies

Why the Courts have been Reluctant?


Advantages for Lifting the Veil

Protection for Creditors

Responsibility for Debts

Fair for Other Members in Company.

163.3 Disadvantages for Lifting the Veil

Can not distinguish the separate legal personality of company and shareholder ‘ liability for company

Some illegal acts for Personal profits to injure the interests of the company



Lifting the Corporate Veil


Corporate veil lifting depicts a lawful judgment or right to treatment as a right or liability of its share-holders or the (BOD) Board of Directors. We can say that a separate legal entity depicts a corporation possessing a liability to own its debts (as incurred) and at the same time, corporation is a sole beneficiary of owed credit. Countries having Common law generally support the rule of separate personality, but countries may lift the corporate veil depending upon the situation.

1.1. Limited liability and separate personality

There are some basic legal characteristics pertaining to a company or corporation which can be categorized into following five areas: legal personality; limited liability; the transfer of shares; delegated or transferred management and ownership of investor. It is generally said that the above-mentioned characteristics are very helpful in running business in more efficient and effective manner through different corporate vehicles.

The only way a limited liability is available to entrepreneur is company incorporation. Without incorporating a company, limited liability is not available. During recent past, it can be more extensive, it is now possible through the formation of limited liability partnership or limited partnership available. The idea of limited liability is that when a company is liquidated, its members (or shareholders) are not required to contribute, but they must pay their shares in the company’s entire assets. In other words, the liability of members is limited. The capital can be mobilized more effectively through limited liability. Limited liability is also an effective means of raising funds for the company. With limited liability, companies have a choice of either loans or limited liability capital market development is also facilitated by limited liability.

Separate personality is another concept. It is observed that limited liability and separate personality are different concepts. Considering the case of unlimited company, separate personality can be present but without limited liability. Its in the constitution that law can lay down limited liability without separate personality. But this is possible only in limited partnership. Generally it has been observed that operation of limited liability can be made very smooth by the use of separate personality. Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd. [1925] a.C. 619 Lee v Lee’s Air Farming Ltd. [1961] AC 12

Separate personality can be defined as a business setting in which assets and liabilities of the company does not belong to its members but to the company itself. In case of liquidation, the creditors do not have the right to sue ex-members for the remaining or unpaid liabilities.

In case of a going-concern, this regulation protects the members from being liable to creditors. Members of a going concern do not have dependence on limited liability. Courts have the right of lifting the corporate veil which will result in member being liable. Limited liability is only applicable when a company in the process of wrapping-up. If an unlimited company is declared bankrupt members are to share the funds to pay company’s debt. But this does not mean that the creditor can directly sue the members. However, if the company is a limited liability company, members of the holders of fully paid shares are in no way liable to contribute to the company debts.

1.2. The principles using Salomon v Salomon .Co

Salomon v Salomon & Co Ltd. [1897] AC 22 at 51 (Lord Macnaghten)

Company is legally entirely different from the user; and it is possible that the establishment of company is exactly the similar to the one before; the same person is the manager and getting the same profit. Companies do not nominate people, in law, the trustee or their agents.

1.3. Exceptions about Lifting the in Different Countries

In order to lift the corporate veil, a number of theories were developed by the German company law in 1920s. These theories were based on the principle that “domination” of parent company on subsidiary is a must for lifting the corporate veils. Today, shareholders of a company can be held responsible for interference and sabotage cases. A minimum of equitable finds are entitled for a corporation. If shareholders took away these funds may claim compensation, even in bankruptcy proceedings.

In UK company law, the lifting of corporate veil is very rare. For the establishment of theory of economic reality, there were a number of attempts by the Court of Appeal in late 20th century. On the other hand, House of Lords adopted an orthodox approach for lifting the corporate veil. Most prominently, in a recent case of Adams v Cape Industries Limited strict reading, is the real “piercing the veil” might occur, if there is some fraud in establishment of company, or it is established to avoid some obligations. A veil is often overlooked in the process of statutory interpretation, and as a matter of tort law for opening up the power of direct taxes, it can be apparent to take care of the management of accident victim’s owned subsidiary. Also a significant statement, the judiciary still in a broader lifting of the “justice” of the interest would support the veil.

In the U.S. company law, corporate veil piercing is one of the most litigation issues. Although the Court held the directors or shareholders do not want positive action, in law bear responsibility for the company, if the company clearly does not match, or just hold the company should bear the liability Church unfair plaintiff. In most areas, there is no bright-line rules and governance based on common-law precedent. In most cases, they break, the three basic pin – the “misconduct” and “proximate cause” “the unity of interests and ownership.” However, no theoretical explanation of a real-world practice, the court can be directly applied to their cases. Therefore, the Court’s struggle with the Prong argument and analysis resulted in all the given factors. This can be called as “totality of circumstances.”

2.0. Lifting the Veil in UK

Although the secondary literature refers to the “Cancel” or “revealing” the veil, the judicial support views that the judge, is subject to the exception to the rule of Solomon which is thin on the ground in different ways. Mr. Lord Denning outlined the “single economic unit” theory – DHN Food Distributors Tuen TV Tower – which, as an economic unit of the court to review the overall business operations, rather than the strict legal form. However, this was largely negative, and has been ruling at a later caution.

In case of Woolfson v Strathclyde, it was confined to its facts in the (DHN) problem has been the decision of whether the plaintiff has a subsidiary by the House of Lords, the former parent company of the premises has conducted its business, although it can get next command, under the rule of compulsory purchase of Solomon compensation for loss of business, which is said to have lost their parents and not the business of subsidiaries).

Similarly, in case of Bank of Tokyo v Karoon, Lord Goff, concluded that the corporate structure of this legal concept is completely different economic reality.

“Single-economic unit” theory is also discarded by the CA in Adams v Cape case, Slade LJ held there, who has been the case in the Solomon case, to avoid domination, they just do not know about what should be done? The view was expressed that the quality of first instance HHJ Southwell Craig v Breachwood, English Law “must” recognize that the corporate veil can be lifted is considered by Hobhouse LJ in the Ordinance heresy v Belhaven principles described in these concerns.

In Jones v Lipman’s case trials, they used company as a “facade” each (Bertrand Russell judges) to defraud the defendant and the Guildford Motor Co. Ltd. v. Horn, who is for the establishment of an injunction were granted to commercial transactions creditor cases. It is only a tool to allow him to circumvent the restrictions on trade convention which seems to be a constant creating a “fraud” exception to the independent business personality. In the same way, in Gencor v Dalby, it was tentatively suggested that the cancelled corporate veil was considered to be the “alter ego” of the defendant. In fact, as the Cook (1997) points out extrajudicial executions, it is because, although it, not the company’s independent status, equity intervention.

2.1. The Element of Lifting Corporate Veil

In 1844, Incorporation was introduced by registration and the principle of limited liability pursued in 1855. This was followed by the enactments by House of Lords in 1897 in Solomon v. Solomon & Company. The concepts of corporate entity and limited liability were incorporated in English law in the same period. In this case, the head court announced that a company is a separate legal individual completely different from the members or shareholders.

From this announcement, we can say that a company is a separate legal entity having a separate life, different from its members. A company can be an owner of any property, can sue anyone, can be sued by anyone and has a life just as any going concern. It is a commonplace of the law, is a very heavy veil drawn between the two can be lifted in many cases; it seems that only a limited number of changes is based on current judicial thinking.

2.2 Some doctrines about Corporate Veil

The Court does not always apply the principles established in Salomon v. Salomon & in many cases, the court will or will ignore the piercing of corporate veil, to reveal the real person or the form and characteristics of the company. The reason behind this may be that the law will not allow the abuse of corporate form or for the purpose of the statute is set. In this case, the court held that the corporate form is being abused, will tear through the corporate veil and expose the true character and nature of its main provisions of the House of Lords by ignoring the Solomon principle.

2.2.1. Agency

In Bodrip v. Solomon case, justice Vaughan Williams said the company is only an agent of Solomon. “This business is Mr. Solomon’s business and no one else, that he chose to employ as an agent limited liability company, which he bound to compensate the agency, and this agency, the company has a lien on the assets “However, in the appeal to the court ruled that companies do not automatically become the agent of the shareholders, even if it is the House of Lords one man company and other shareholders, they were dummies.

Have the ability to act as agent of a company can do all of its parent company or any agency or individual members, so if it or they are authorized to do so. If this is the parent company or members will abide by his agent, so long as these actions in the actual or apparent scope of authority. But no relationship between the parties expressly agrees that the case will be difficult to establish a presumption. Try to do in Cape Town failed. In cases validity of the agency agreement and the parties have expressly agreed to such an agreement, they will be the corporate veil is lifted; the agent should be one of the main acts.

2.2.2. Fraud

The court has more time to prepare the piercing felt, or may have committed fraud behind the veil. Solomon, principle cannot be allowed by court to be used as an engine of fraud. The two classic cases of fraud exception are Guilford Motor Company v. Horn and Jones v. Lipman Limited.

In the first case, Mr. Horn, a former employee of Guilford Motor Company was bound by an employment contract in which it was mentioned that he could not solicit the company’s customers. To defeat this, he set up a limited liability company in his wife’s name and asked for the solicitation of company’s customers. The company brought action against him. The Court of Appeal was of the opinion that he formed this company as a device a strategy to Mr. Yangaihuoen the effective implementation of the business form. The main purpose of the company was to indulge into a new committed fraud. Therefore, the appellate court held that it is just a fake to cover up their unlawful activities.

In the second case of Jones v. Lipman, they signed an agreement to sell their land, and then changed their mind in order to avoid a concrete manifestation of their property for their transfer to the company. In the second case of Jones v. Lipman, they signed an agreement to sell their land, and then changed their mind in order to avoid a concrete manifestation of their property for their transfer to the company. Russell Judge specifically mentioned that in Horn v. Guilford decision, there is a “mask (Mr. Lippman) in front of him trying to avoid the equity holders of the eye recognition” of specific performance, he also opposed the grant of Mr. Lipman and the company. In any case, the court allowed the company form, forms of abuse, and the abuse of the court when the ants will occur in the Penn steps and Jenny in her article lists three of frauds, which requires the company to concentrate on before the corporate veil can be lifted. These are as under:

A) What is the fraud-related motivation? Whether some standard is necessary to deceive the needs of the decision or not? In the case of Hilton v. Plustile Limited use of the plaintiff and the defendant agreed to the lease arrangements for a company to avoid the behaviour of 1977.The rental application to the Court of Appeal held that the plaintiff not entitled to lift the veil, because he always fully aware of this issue. But another interesting question is: what is the effect of other people there cheated. In order to resolve the issue, Adams census industries consider whether to adopt the corporate form plc. Or not? In such a way as to prove that the corporate veil has been lifted, the court noted that the discussion group of companies on the proper test is whether the company has as One application of this test j, Slade said, “the motivation of the perpetrators can be very significant,” the classic case is meant to deceive the plaintiff, “is just the facade to conceal the truth” is used in ever how is not Adams census industry. Therefore, the issue is the need to determine whether the exemption is necessary motivation for the existence of fraud. But to get any answer, it’s very important to identify the nature of the deprivation of legal rights, which are being denied to plaintiff.

B) the nature of legal obligations is to be avoided on?

The courts want the limited companies to prevent the use of corporate form to avoid the contract or legal obligation. But there arises a question whether this obligation will affect the ability of the court to lift the corporate veil. In the typical case, the defendant sought to avoid the inclusion of pre-existing legal obligations, the company set up the main motive is to avoid in Adams v. Cape Town to fulfil legal obligations need to discuss some of the veil has been cancelled in order to prevent its participation in the sale of asbestos in the United States propaganda angle, avoid tort liability for failing to prevent the attendant risks of asbestos trade any of the Group’s interests in U.S. real cloak. However, tort liability is pure speculation. For the existence of fraud exception, the plaintiff must reject the defendant’s legitimate right to exist. If there is no legal right to exist as part of the plaintiff against the defendant with intent to deceive must be speculative in nature, and thus substantially reduced. If the legal rights of crystallization but if the contrary, if the problems, whether in this case, psychological factors can be met prior to the psychological factor is the time to meet the company. The answer is that if an appropriate legal rights after the establishment of a corporation, but in the use of corporate form to avoid the crystallization of the rights of the law, should meet the fraud exception

C) Is the timing of the incorporation of the device company relevant?

In Clay v. Breachwood Motors Limited, the failure of the fraud exception is that for fake company set up time. Here, Mr. Craig has brought to his employer for wrongful dismissal action against biological weapons. Weight as a defence, but four months later, he was served notice that the company bankrupt. Plaintiff received the order for damages and interest received, however, in his winding-up without any weight will dissolve. Plaintiff sought an order of substituent’s on the grounds of justice weight bone marrow. In this case, the facts may be similar to Adams v. Cape, Richard Southwell, but as the industries outstanding Guildford and Horne and Jones v. Lipman sitting in that, in these cases, the fake company has formed the view the basis of fraud. In the present case, the bone marrow equipment company has been in the business and takes care of its own business. This is a very controversial case, should have decided on the basis of the classic case, as it should be established regardless of equipment, the company is to avoid legal liability, or whether there. Craig should have been just another possible reason for the decision.

2.2.3. Parent – Subsidiaries Companies

Sometimes there might be a situation where the Solomon principle won’t comply when there is group of enterprises; the court may lift the veil to see the financial reality of these groups. In DHNfood Products Ltd. v. Tower Hamlets case, it has been said that the court can ignore the case of Solomon, as long as it is just and equitable to do so. In these cases, the Court held that under the present circumstances it is a suitable piercing the corporate veil. Here, three subsidiaries are considered to be the same part of the economic entity or group, and the right to receive compensation.

Lord Denning once said, ‘We know that in many aspects of the treatment of a group of companies for the purpose of the account, balance sheet and profit and loss accounts together. Gore said in his book: “There is a general tendency to ignore the evidence, independent legal team,” but the court will pierce the corporate veil on the facts of the case may be. The nature and control of joint-stock index will be whether the court will pierce the corporate veil.

Held in the Wolfson case, there are “not consonant with the principles of the House of Lords on the basis of which the facts of this case, the corporate veil can be pierced, to the effect that Campbell Wolfson held business or true masters of the assets of solfred “a total of two subsidiary companies and business interference claims on the value of the land compensation. In these circumstances the House of Lords said that “the correct principle adopted is appropriate to pierce the corporate veil only in exceptional circumstances exist, that it is a mere cover up the fact that the appearance of truth” in a figurative sense, refers to the appearance of the skin especially false or deceptive and covert camouflage imports. Corporator has full control of the company is not enough; just a facade constitutes the company, and this word shown in the context of identity and corporator activities, deliberate concealment.

Independent legal personality of the company, although a “technical problem” no matter of form it is a problem of substance and reality corporator should not be, in every occasion, entered into a voluntary arrangement is to reduce the negative consequences to consider the reasons for the corporator is to his advantage. Especially the “enterprise groups” must be carefully limited the concept is clear, therefore, companies who seek the advantages of independent business personality of the corresponding general must accept the burdens and restrictions.

In some cases, companies have not been unveiled Adams census is the best example of industry. This is a case involving judgments of foreign companies. In this case, the court held that the companies within the Group are an independent entity. But a local court is particularly reluctant to admit the concept of group entities and the relationship between corporate debts. Although this is not possible in the absence of trust held by a group of institutions or other equity theory in the United States liable for the use of debt and New Zealand and Ireland have the statutory provisions of the asset pool.

3.0. Why the Courts have been Reluctant?

3.1. Reasons

Corporate veil is something for which the court itself is reluctant. It is, however, difficult to predict, whether the court appears to have a tendency to “reinvent the wheel” each time something controversial.

Threshold problems, there is no common and uniform basis the court’s decision, occasionally piercing the corporate veil. Although an ad hoc explanation could be that the court decides the case, there is no principle way to obtain the relevant authorities. In order to pierce the corporate veil of fraud, the company “must have the intention to use the plaintiff in such a way to negate some of the legal rights of pre-existing business structure.

3.2. Advantages for Lifting the Veil

3.2.1. Protection for Creditors

If managed properly, the provisions of corporate veil are vital for creditors, lawsuits, personal liability protection and other disputes. Typically, these claims can only be used for business assets. Personal liability is limited to the owners of the company’s investment. Personal assets, such as real estate, bank accounts or other investments, are protected from business creditors.

3.2.2. Responsibility for Debts

One important reason is of forming LLC is because owners will not be held personally liable for the debts of the enterprise, in case the business goes towards liquidation. But sometimes courts will hold corporate debt limited liability company. If a company or limited liability company eventually had to close its doors, a small business owner the last thing you want is to pay business debts. However, when cash is tight, the owners are not careful, if indicted to pay outstanding creditors, the court may “pierce the corporate veil” (elevator company or limited liability company limited liability veil), and holds them to the company’s corporate debt, the owners of the personal responsibility.

3.2.3. Fair for Other Members in Company.

It is equally important to provide surety to court that will if it does not pierce the corporate veil, inequality and injustice or fraud shall prevail. For example, if there is evidence that the individual is “manipulated” to “promote” to the other members of her company disadvantage of her personal interests, then it is fair, she found responsible for the (individual) for her behaviour, and more than Company.

3.3 Disadvantages for Lifting the Veil

3.3.1. Can not distinguish the separate legal personality of company and shareholder ‘ liability for company

Where a company owned assets, these assets belong to the company, not its members. With the partnership or sole proprietorship business, the owner of the asset (s) is a partner or owner of the contrast. Members cannot claim the assets as interest purchased by the Company, as the legal owner, as in Macaura can go to the members of the damage.

This does not mean that the Court will always just need to lift the corporate veil where it is. Court allows anyone to vigorously oppose any fight, let alone myself, “according to the company dress peers.”

3.3.2. Some illegal acts for Personal profits to injure the interests of the company

When a company is a fake, fraud or engage in other wrongful conduct and its directors, officers, or shareholders of the personal interests of the full court may ignore the separate corporate existence, and on the personal responsibility of the directors, officers, or shareholders. In other words, the court can penetrate the “veil ,” the law used to divide the company from the people behind the company (including its liabilities and assets.) Create a separate veil, the legal recognition of the entity behind the business and shield them from personal liability.

4.0. Conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that lifting of corporate veils by UK courts should be limited to the cases in which there is some existence of concealing the identity of the owner or proprietor for the reason of avoiding some legal obligations. The abuse of the veil, which allow open veil an unfair shield those who wish to deflect the power of the Company Law.

In fact, the essence of corporate personality is open. Thus, while individuals may bear legal liability protection does not necessarily mean that he’s assets and interests of the veil of directors do not open for review. Therefore, the scope, and provide a reasonable check and balance theory, therefore, the Court has a different legal mechanisms, which can penetrate the veil, they need to prove its protective layer. Court will examine the situation to determine whether it is wise to lift veil of reality, and held to take into account in the real world actions of the company.


AW Machen, “Corporate Personality” (1910) 24 Harvard Law Review 253

J Dewey, “The Historic Background of Corporate Legal Personality” (1926) 35 Yale Law Journal 655

C Alting, “Piercing the corporate veil in German and American law – Liability of individuals and entities: a comparative view” (1994 — 1995) 2 Tulsa Journal Comparative & International Law 187

AA Berle, “The Theory of Enterprise Entity” (1947) 47(3) Columbia Law Review 343

EJ Cohn and C. Simitis, “Lifting the Veil’ in the Company Laws of the European Continent” (1963)12(1) the International and Comparative Law Quarterly 189

H Hansmann, R Kraakman and R. Squire, “Law and the Rise of the Firm” (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1333

H Hansmann and R. Kraakman, “Toward unlimited shareholder liability for corporate torts” (1991)100(7) Yale Law Review 1879

Hicks Andrew & Goo S.H., Cases & Materials on Company Law, 5th ed, (2004) Oxford University Press.

Dine Janet, Company Law, 5th ed, (2005) Palgrave Macmillan

Sealy LS, Sealy: Cases and Materials in Company Law, 7th ed (2001) LexisNexis UK

Smith & Keenan’s Company Law for Students, Keenan & Bisacre, FT Pitman Publishing Company Law Fundamental Principles, Stephen Griffin, Longman

AW Machen, “Corporate Personality” (1910) 24 Harvard Law Review 253

J Dewey, “The Historic Background of Corporate Legal Personality” (1926) 35 Yale Law Journal 655

C Alting, “Piercing the corporate veil in German and American law – Liability of individuals and entities: a comparative view” (1994 — 1995) 2 Tulsa Journal Comparative & International Law 187

AA Berle, “The Theory of Enterprise Entity” (1947) 47(3) Columbia Law Review 343

EJ Cohn and C. Simitis, “Lifting the Veil’ in the Company Laws of the European Continent” (1963)12(1) the International and Comparative Law Quarterly 189

H Hansmann, R Kraakman and R. Squire, “Law and the Rise of the Firm” (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1333

H Hansmann and R. Kraakman, “Toward unlimited shareholder liability for corporate torts” (1991)100(7) Yale Law Review 1879

Hicks Andrew & Goo S.H., Cases & Materials on Company Law, 5th ed, (2004) Oxford University Press.

Dine Janet, Company Law, 5th ed, (2005) Palgrave Macmillan

Sealy LS, Sealy: Cases and Materials in Company Law, 7th ed (2001) LexisNexis UK

Smith & Keenan’s Company Law for Students, Keenan & Bisacre, FT Pitman Publishing Company Law Fundamental Principles, Stephen Griffin, Longman

Smith & Keenan’s Company Law for Students, Keenan & Bisacre, FT Pitman Publishing Company Law Fundamental Principles, Stephen Griffin, Longman

H Hansmann and R. Kraakman, “Toward unlimited shareholder liability for corporate torts” (1991)100(7) Yale Law Review 1879

Hicks Andrew & Goo S.H., Cases & Materials on Company Law, 5th ed, (2004) Oxford University Press.

Sealy LS, Sealy: Cases and Materials in Company Law, 7th ed (2001) LexisNexis UK

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