Distinct Hegemonic Masculinity Behaviors Between Heterosexual and Gay Men

Distinct Hegemonic Masculinity Behaviors Between Heterosexual and Gay Men


This paper examines two published journal articles that describe research completed on masculinity between heterosexual men and gay men. The study by Kris Gebhard, Lauren Cattaneo, June Tangney, Stephanie Hargrove, and Rachel Shor, which focused on heterosexual men masculinities, used surveys to conduct their investigation with undergraduate students in a psychology course at a (male: n=86; female: n=181).

The study by James Ravenhill and Richard O. de Visser, which focused on gay men masculinity conducted face to face and Skype interviews with six young gay men, ranging in age from 20-24 years of age, and eleven older gay men who ranged in age from 30-42 years old. These subjects were from England and Wales.

Although both articles examine the masculinity struggles in men, the research varies between heterosexual men shame and threatened-masculinity, and gay men either not demonstrating enough masculinity or too much hegemonic masculinity. The study administered by Kris et al. suggests that men who suffer from threatened masculinity experience shame and guilt, which tends to bring on physically aggressive behavior. Ravenell and de Visser suggest older men prefer to demonstrate more masculinity than younger gay men because of cultural shifts that have accepted the gay community in todays society.


Both articles conduct interesting studies on hegemonic masculinity from different perspectives. Some of the findings of masculinity were similar between heterosexual and gay men. According to both studies, hegemonic masculinity can explain the hostility some gay, and heterosexual men show toward other gay men who subvert normative masculinity. In the survey that only tested heterosexual men, it showed, challenged masculinity, usually through gender discrepancies, , anxiety, and shame. They have reduced confidence, which increases aggression and most times, lead to violence within men. The study shows that externalization of blame is a possible response to shame, which is relevant to attack. Instead of becoming angry and hostile from their flaws, they revert their anger toward other individuals, such as the opposite sex, other heterosexual men, or gay men.

The next study that interviewed young and older gay men, research revealed that older gay men are more prone to act more masculine than young gay men. In todays society, the acceptance of the LGBTQ community around the world has increased since the 1980s, according to the UCLA School of Law. Older men regardless of their sexuality, still had to illustrate hegemonic masculinity behaviors in the case of threatening harm caused by heterosexual hegemonic masculine men who may deal with threatened masculinity, shame related issues. Also, most older gay men are not acceptable to gay men who portray to be more feminine than masculine. They believe that their sexuality should not depict who they indeed are as a person, but more importantly, as a man.

The research done by Ravenhill and de Visser with the older and younger gay men makes the most substantial impact on the topic and population because their method of conducting face to face interviews in person or via Skype provides an accurate and in-depth reaction to how both parties deal with hegemonic masculinity. In addition to the direct contact with the subjects, there was diversity in ethnicity when referencing the demographics of the participants. Also, the subjects varied in age, relationship status, and their level of education. The procedure was not as intense as the alternative study done by Kris et al. There were only four direct questions addressing masculinity and their experiences as a gay man, which were divided into two sections to answer the research questions, (a) masculinity in opposition to gayness and (b) alternative interpretations of masculinity.

Many young gay men, although not trying to camouflage their sexuality with hegemonic masculinity, most of them are perceived as masculine by others, because they act and look less feminine. They monitor their masculinity by their lack of interests in sports or aggressiveness.

Older gay men prefer not to be perceived as the stereotypical gay man. They believe it others see them as gay; they automatically revert to drag queens, transgender, and soft. When older gay men are in the presence of others, it is vital that they are seen as masculine. They can flip from hanging out with their gay peers to engaging in sports and manly conversations among other hegemonic heterosexual men.

Despite young gay men not feeling more masculine than older gay men, they believe it is still essential to illustrate masculinity in public. Demonstrating feminine characteristics outside of a can be perceived as unprofessional and can lead to danger if heterosexual men feel threatened by their actions. Like the older gay subject, some of the young gay men believe there are times and places for gayness.

Suggestions for Future Research

For future research in this area, I would incorporate more women in this study of masculinity. I would ask women how do they determine masculinity, and do they men are the only gender that depicts masculinity? Also, I will want to know if they identify as masculine, how do men challenge their masculinity? In my research, my demographics will be multi-racial, vary in age from <20 and >30, and sexuality.


  • Gebhard, K. T., Cattaneo, L. B., Tangney, J. P., Hargrove, S., & Shor, R. (2019). Among Straight Men: Measurement and Relationship to Aggression.Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 429-444.
  • Ravenhill, J. P., & Visser, R. O. (2019). I Dont Want to Be Seen as a Screaming Queen: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Gay Mens Masculine Identities.Psychology of Men and Masculinities, 324-336.
  • Sanders, J. F. (2019, July 15).UCLA Law. Retrieved from Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy: https://law.ucla.edu/centers/social-policy/williams-institute-on-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identity-law-and-public-policy/about/


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper