Disease-Resistant Personality Thesis paper

Disease-Resistant Personality

The idea that human personality affects health, wellness, and disease is hardly new, dating back to Hippocrates, the author of the medical oath of ethics still governing the practice of modern medicine today (Selye, 1956). In the era of high-tech scientific research, substantial empirical evidence has corroborated the long-noted anecdotal observations that certain types of personalities and chronic behavioral responses to environmental stressors correspond to different degrees of susceptibility to a wide range of physiological ailments and diseases (Flannery & Flannery, 2006; Friedman, 1990). To a large extent, many medical conditions with bona fide physical symptoms and physiological effects are attributable either all or in part to psychological factors in the realm of personality in general and in the realm of response and coping mechanisms in relation to stress in particular.


Renowned physician and author John E. Sarno has published a considerable volume of research and analysis on the relationship between emotional stress and physiological ailments of a wide variety. His work has demonstrated that lower back pain in particular, which afflicts more than three-quarters of all adults at one time or another, is substantially attributable to purely psychological causes (Sarno, 2007). Lower back pain alone is responsible for a tremendous amount of money, disability, and lost working hours spent on palliative relief and rehabilitation.

Even worse, Dr. Sarno (2007) has demonstrated empirically that the conclusions of other researchers (Acosta, 1990; Flannery & Flannery, 2006, & Friedman, 1990) that a large percentage of surgeries are performed for medical conditions attributable to stress rather than to any organic causes. The list of medical conditions considered highly susceptible to the influence of personality include a wide range of gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, fibromyalgia, heart disease, high blood pressure, sciatica, and even various systemic infection and apparent local chronic injuries such as lateral epicondylitis or “tennis elbow” (Flannery & Flannery, 2006, Sarno, 2007).

In that regard, the specific mechanism identified is primarily a function of: (1) the psychological repression of negative emotions such as anger and rage, fear, anxiety, guilt, and shame; (2) the resulting displacement of that stress from the conscious mind in alternate areas where it manifests itself as physical symptoms; (3) the influence of chronically high levels specific hormones associated with the biological stress response, such as cortisol; (4) chronic overwork of the circulatory and respiratory systems; and (5)

the chronic reduction of re-oxygenation of tissues through blood flow (Sarno, 2007).

To a certain extent, susceptibility to the long-term medical consequences of stress are subject to hereditary influence. In that respect, different individuals have very different natural physiological responses to various triggers of exposure to environmental stress (Friedman, 1990). Nevertheless, many of the differences that enable some individuals to avoid the secondary consequences of unavoidable stress can be taught and learned through conscious effort and purposeful conditioning, or de-conditioning, as the case may be (Acosta, 1990; Sarno, 2007). This is especially true to the extent that various aspects of the natural response to stress are learned rather than functions of innate genetic predisposition.

Typical methods of behavioral conditioning capable of reducing the secondary consequences of stress include coping mechanisms for the recognition of the earliest symptoms of stress and training to respond to stress in more positive ways instead of either repressing it or overreacting to it (Acosta, 1990; Selye, 1956). Furthermore, Sarno

(2007) reports that merely teaching patients to use their awareness of physiological symptoms as a method of recognizing their natural responses to stress significantly improves their ability to redirect negative emotions and prevent them from contributing toward their manifestation in physical symptoms.

Furthermore, Sarno (2007) also suggests that emotional awareness of physical pain as a symptom of stress provides a valuable biofeedback tool. In addition to learning how to alter one’s immediate psychological response in the moment of stressful circumstances, effective methods of increasing psychological resistance to disease teach other mechanisms such as maintaining a broader approach to keep stressful events in perspective, and avoiding negative mindset in relation to self-criticism and relational comparisons to others, such as in the vocational arena and social relationships (Acosta,

1990′ Flannery & Flannery, 2006).

Sarno (2007) has developed these techniques extensively and has reported that reducing the cumulative effects of environmental stress through behavioral training even enhances resistance to bacterial infection by boosting the efficiency and the intensity of the immune response to foreign threats at the microscopic level. Admittedly, these techniques cannot eliminate organic disease; on the other hand, volumes of research have documented the degree to which the subjective perception of pain is susceptible to emotional influence (Friedman, 1990; Sarno, 2007). Ultimately, the development of a disease-resistant personality is dependent on the individual’s awareness of his genuine thoughts, feelings, and reactions to the many sources of stresses that are part of life in modern society. The long-term hope of medical practitioners who advocate techniques for doing so recognize the limitations of behavioral approaches to medical issues, but suggest that it is possible, at least, to address the non-organic physiological consequences of stress through non-invasive behavioral modification instead of through prescription drugs, physical therapy, and surgery.


Acosta S. “The interrelationship of stressors, hardiness personality and social support on the severity of manifestations of stress symptoms among high-income men.”

University of Maryland College Park, MD. Ph.D. Dissertation (1990). Retrieved

April 15, 2009, from ProQuest Digital Dissertations database (Pub. No AAT


Flannery, RB, Flannery, GJ. “Sense of coherence, life stress, and psychological distress:

A prospective methodological inquiry” Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol. 46,

No. 4: 415 — 420, February 21, 2006.

Friedman, HS. (1990). Personality and Disease. New York: Wiley & Sons.

Sarno, JE, Mann, SJ, Rashbaum, I, Leonard-Segal, A, (2007). Divided Mind: The

Epidemic of Mindbody Disorders. New York: Harper-Collins.

Selye H. (1956) The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw Hill.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper