Comparing personal thoughts and leadership models

Leadership in Organizations

Organizational Leadership

Thoughts on Leadership (Opening statement)

Management verses Leadership

What is management?



The overlap ion management and leadership

What do leaders do?

Comparing personal thoughts and leadership models

Leaders see what others do not Leaders seize opportunities surrounding them

Personal statements/concluding the chapter

Leadership Theories

The trait theory — what people have chances to be good leaders?

Behavioral Theories — What Do Good Leaders Do?

The contingency theory – how situations determine good leadership

Leadership styles

The servant leadership style

Transformational leadership

Situational leadership

Effective leadership styles for today’s organizations


Self as Leader

Core values in leadership practice

The leadership ethical framework

Decision making linked to core values

Organizational change framework

Organizational change strategy

Goal-setting change model




Leadership in Context

Applying theories and concepts in real life



Final Thoughts

Development of leadership

Thoughts on ethical leadership

Essence of major cornerstones in leadership

Personal connections and embracing relationships

Evolution of thinking — the impact of learning

Lessons on leadership

The philosophy of leading

Final Summary



Thoughts on Leadership (Opening statement)

In many instances, managers and leaders are of the perception that leadership is only what one does to influence others. They fail to acknowledge that leadership is inspiring, encouraging and empowering to those who look upon a leader. An effective leader is one that is capacitated to reveal the best in others, and not only themselves. A person’s character is in most cases gauged when they are in power, and they have the ability to lead others. The most fundamental rule in leadership is that leaders need to encourage a relationship between them and their subjects/subordinates, to reduce the levels and extremes of rebellion and resistance to change. The opening statement would, therefore, be that leadership is only efficient where there is a relationship between the leader and followers, in order to enhance team work, efficient communication and adaptability to change.


Different authors have had their view of what leadership is giving diverse definitions of the word. Leadership comes from the word lead, which is both a noun and a verb. Lead as a noun means to guide your subordinates and to head an organization. Lead as a verb means to excel in something and to be ahead of others. According to the Sagepub website (2007), leadership is used to identify a certain interaction that is shared among the team leaders and their subordinates. Usually, it is the teal leader that has all the influence over others. Leadership also describes personality traits and different behaviors that sum up to collectives and roles of individuals.

According to Gallos, leadership is defined as a social process that is complex rooted in knowledge, skills and values. It is the way both followers and leaders think. Leaders see new opportunities and chances for the company/organization, and they face critical challenges based on the circumstances surrounding the organization, the individuals involved and the chances/possibilities at hand. Gallos goes ahead to say that leadership is emotionally oriented as effective leaders motivate and inspire their followers, in order to divulge the best attributes from themselves and their followers.

Leadership is empathy. By this, it means knowing how to listen and get other’s perceptions and opinions and hearing them out. Effectively, leaders get to hear out others and empathize on their issues. Essentially, leadership is all about integrity, substance and honesty. Leaders should have the ability to sustain scrutiny, inspections and a close examination. The question remains whether leaders are made or born. Evidently, there has to be an understanding within us that leaders can be made, especially if they learn on how to motivate others and inspire them to perform better in the team or organization (Maddock & Fulton, 1998).

After the preceding paragraphs outlining the definitions, there are common aspects identified in the different definitions concerning leadership. These several aspects include leadership as a process, which involves the development of leadership attributes. Leadership also involves the influence of an individual or a group of persons. In most cases, leadership involves a group context, where the leader inspires and motivates a certain scope of a group or subordinate. Leadership ought to have the aspect of goal setting and goal attainment, especially in an organization setup.

Management vs. Leadership

What is management?

Before a critical analysis on both aspects of management and leadership, a definition of management will be necessary at this stage. In general terms, regardless of diverse opinions from different authors, management is the act of working with people, and accomplishing objectives of the organization together with its members. Many activities are undergone in management; planning, staffing, coordinating, controlling, leading and motivating. Managers are in most cases expected to undertake the technical activities of the organization, be responsible, authoritative and reliable (Montana & Charnov, 2008).


In this section, the similarities between management and leadership will be analytically explored. Researchers have had a tendency of mentioning that persons bestowed with authority or powers are leaders. If this is followed, then supervisors and managers are all leaders in an organization. This means there is a great inter-relationship between management and leadership. The two terms are even interchanged at times, regardless of the fact that some authors differ concerning the two terms (McKenna, 2000).

In discussing the similarities between the two terms, their characteristics will be assessed. Firstly, both managers and leaders have to possess efficient training and coaching skills. They are the role models of their followers and subordinates, and are obligated to train them in order for the subordinates to tackle different tasks regardless of their positions or situations. In addition, it is expected that those in management and leadership have to be confident. In order to direct, motivate and inspire their followers, managers and leaders ought to have immense confidence. Both leadership and management also involve the attainment of certain goals. For managers, they need to reach satisfactorily their organizational or departmental objectives. For the leaders, they also motivate their followers into achieving certain laid down tasks. Management and leadership also call for creativity, and most importantly empathic listening skills (Ricketts, 2009).

Similarly, both leadership and management personalities need to possess certain values that are common for both of them. These include the working in realistic conditions that are attainable. Managers and leaders also need a strong self — esteem and a sense of prioritizing things for better results in the firm/organization. Leadership and management both have the aspect of sincerity, trust and willingness to share certain exceptional virtues of responsibility, credit and recognition (Ricketts, 2009).


Many writers have also distinguished management to leadership, insisting that the two have different ideologies and components. According to some authors, leadership is a multidirectional influence and relationship while management is unidirectional authority relationship. In other words, leadership involves the development of purposes that are mutual between the leaders and their followers. Management, in contrary, is concerned and linked to the coordination of specific activities, to ensure a certain task is successfully undertaken. As leaders and their followers work as a team and embrace togetherness in order to create change, subordinates and the managers combine their abilities and forces to sell both services and goods (Northouse, 2009).

The definitions of the two terms are also a distinguishing factor. In managing things, then the manager accomplishes certain tasks and objectives through well established master routines. However, leading involves the act of a leader influencing others, especially through motivating and inspiring them, to ensure that they create visions of change. In summary, this could be said; managers do things the right way while leaders to the right things. Also, managers and leaders are different in nature. They are quite different types of persons, with a different mindset altogether. As managers are reactive and prioritize working with others and ensure problems are solved without involving emotions, leaders are very emotional, and they are actively and completely involved with their followers. Leaders will often seek to shape and reshape ideas, so as to provide multiple options when responding to their problems. They, therefore, make their duty way easier, compared to managers, who have limited choice in dealing with the obstacles in their careers (Northouse, 2009).

The overlap ion management and leadership

Despite of the many differences already discussed in the preceding paragraphs, it is clear that the two, leadership and management do overlap. As managers try their level best to involve themselves in influencing their subordinates to achieve certain goals, then they are performing as leaders, hence introducing the leadership traits in management. Leaders will at times take part in planning, organizing, controlling and staffing, which are duties of managers. Evidently, leaders also take part in managerial functions. In both management and leadership, there is the aspect of group influence and goal attainment. Other authors and writers have even got to the level where they treat leadership and management with equal measure and hardly emphasize their differences (Northouse, 2009).

What do leaders do?

Comparing personal thoughts and leadership models

Recapping on the definition of leadership is necessary at this stage. Leadership, according to La Monica (1938), is when a person has authority that is recognized by others, and the person has followers/subordinates under them, who believe that the person will assist them in attaining certain goals (carrying out specific objectives for the followers). Furthermore, anyone that is willing to assist and help others could be referred to as a leader (p.8)

Leaders see what others do not Most leaders have acuity, where they are able to observe things that others cannot see, hence setting them out from the rest. Leaders see things with greater scrutiny and clarity, and they analyze both possibilities and also the expected outcomes, including problems and risks involved in taking a certain path of work. In simpler terms, leaders are able to tell what the current situation is and future expectations. Leaders also define reality and only work under realistic circumstances. Some theorists such as Max DePree have been of the idea that leadership is an art and that the first responsibility of any prosperous leader is that they just have to be realistic in their endeavors. To some leaders, defining the reality is a skill they inquired. Others, however, have leadership gifts, and they see reality as involuntary. When compared to leadership theories such as the situational theory, where leaders need to embrace change, and treat issues as per the current positions, reality seeking is inevitably important for leaders (Browning, 2009).

Leaders seize opportunities surrounding them

In many instances, leaders will be interested with what is happening in the world. This is because leaders have the ability to seize chances that could assist them attaining certain goals for the firm/organization or any other followers. Leaders, therefore, listen and are eager to learn in order for them to link and lead at the same time. When they read, leaders passionately learn how to deal with emergent situations giving those unique ways to react to thoughts. Leaders get to know what is going on not just in a shadowy way, but in acute and grander sense of things. As a leader, one is expected to look beyond the circumstances that are obvious, and concentrate on the causes, effects and resolution possibilities of the different circumstances (Browning, 2009).

Effective and good leaders have certain attributes that are necessary in gauging their influence and success. These factors include; a strong-self-esteem, sincerity, trust, willingness to share responsibility, service mentality where leaders are able to act as servants and not bosses, creativity, visionary tendencies, great listening and communication skills and many others. The more the attributes individual possesses, the better the chances that the person could make a good leader (Ricketts, 2009). The mentioned attributes, according to my opinion, will apply in different circumstances. Essentially, when leaders are faced with barriers and hindrances, then they use their strongholds to tackle the issues at hand. It is about obvious that none of the leaders can have all the attributes mentioned, but the more they are, the better the leader.

Leaders have the power to discover what is universal, and then capitalize it to bear fruit. Leaders rally other people known to be their followers towards a future that is beneficial and fruitful. To manage the task of leadership, differences such as race, gender, color difference, nationality and diversity in personalities have to be set aside, in order to exploit potentiality. Alike managers, leaders also need to access their followers and understand them well. Leaders, therefore, are tasked with the obligation of knowing the strengths and weaknesses of their followers, what triggers the strengths and their learning styles too (Ricketts, 2009).

Leaders tend to fit into leadership at the right time if they willingly accept responsibility. When and where a group needs to be directed, or a situation needs analyzing, or even catalyzing, then the group/team needs a sober and effective leader. Leaders also tackle dynamic situations that need motivating and inspiring traits to convince followers to adapt to changes and new integrations to the organization. The greater the challenges the leader faces, the more the risks involved, and the pressure exerted, hence calling for leaders that are result-oriented and diverse in problem solving. Leaders also have a calling of influencing others in reaching task targets and achieving them, and influencing towards a direction of a project or organization. Leaders take responsibility and bestow it on themselves (Browning, 2009).

Personal statements/concluding the chapter

Personally, I think that leadership is all about individuals’ attempts to impact on another’s behavior through motivation and inspiration. Leadership could either be successful or unsuccessful, depending on the reactions of followers. Leadership is about earning trust from the people to enhance the relationship between them. Good relationships between leaders and their followers usually bears great fruits at the end, in terms of reaching organization objectives and attaining other specified tasks within the leadership scope.

Despite the diverse definitions and concepts of leadership, it is important to note that leadership involves the influence of a certain group of persons so that they can easily attain certain organizational goals. In many instances, the goals set are usually common, between the leaders and followers. Since leaders and followers all conjoin to make leadership possible, it is mandatory that issues are confronted through both angles. They all need to be understood differently for their relationship to be stronger and more persistent (Northouse, 2009). There also has to be recognition of the two forms of leadership, which include emergent and assigned leadership. In assigned leadership, it is all about the organization, which involves formal titles and positions in the firm. Emergent leadership, in contrary, involves acquiring support and trust from believers, who could either be followers or any group of persons. All the aspects discussed in this chapter will be expounded and interrelated in the proceeding chapters.


Leadership Theories

The difference between leaders that prosper and those that do not is related to the combination of characteristics the leader possesses. However, it is also necessary to consider that leaders cannot have all the combination that makes them good, but effective leaders use different characteristics they have to deal with the many circumstances they encounter. Leaders are in most cases asked to use the most appropriate approaches in dealing with situations so as to maximize on their abilities to foster change. The core leadership theories are discussed below, and leadership styles will be discussed later in the paper.

The trait theory — what people have chances to be good leaders?

In this theory, theorists argue that for a leader to be effective there has to be characteristics and traits that they possess. These common personality characteristics are usually unique to a certain extent, and they are referred to as traits. The very early theorists assisted us in understanding that leadership is innate, meaning it has to be inborn. They went ahead to consider leadership to be instinctive which one is either born with or not. However, the current situation is different, because of the emerging changes in organizational setups. Currently, scientists believe that the leadership traits can be developed and learnt hence enhancing certain qualities within ourselves that will make us leaders. This theory is specifically assisting us to realize and understand the qualities leaders possess that distinguish themselves from the other ordinary persons.

In simpler terms, traits are just but behaviors that are externally observable but come from peoples’ minds. Those with the cognitive abilities end up having internal beliefs and processes which need to be available if anyone is going to lead followers and subordinates effectively. These traits include; adaptability to situations, embracing social environment, being assertive and cooperative, making the right decisions and have prosperous results, being persistent and self-confident, having the tolerance to cope with stressful moments and environments and the willingness to undertake responsibilities bestowed on a person (Gill, 2012).

Apart from the traits, there are also skills which an individual has to possess, together with the traits, lead to a strong leadership position. These skills include intelligence, conceptual skills, being creative, solving issues diplomatically and in a tactful manner, fluency in communication especially English, being organized and having the power to persist in order to attain desired goals, and many other skills. The trait theory has faced oppositions and criticisms from today’s theories, arguing that the theory is an atomistic approach, where every personality variable is viewed independently in the determination of leadership (Gill, 2012).

In summary, the leadership theory is of the idea that people are either born, or not born leaders. Leaders are, therefore, deemed to posses certain qualities that lead to their success. These qualities are inborn and could be inherited, such as sociability, determination and intelligence. However, because of the skills acquired, an individual with certain skills will work efficiently. Therefore, one can be effective in leadership is training is done, skills are acquired and styles developed. These skills are what organization’s sort after, when they devote resources and effort to train and develop their leaders and employees (Gill, 2012).

Behavioral Theories — What Do Good Leaders Do?

The behavioral theory focuses in the way leaders behave. Behavior is what determines whether leaders can dictate what they need to be done, and still cooperate with the followers without retaliations and frequent resistance. Behavior is what makes leaders involve their followers when making decisions and planning on strategies that are aimed to reach certain objectives. In the early 1930’s, a theorist by the name Lewin Kurt based the behavioral theory on three specific types of leaders mentioned below;

Autocratic leaders, who make decisions without involving the followers and subordinates, This type of leadership was only thought to be effective when decisions needed to be made urgently, therefore, no time to refer to the followers for their opinions. Autocratic leaders also work well where there is no need to agree with the followers. However, this style could be ineffective in the sense that it can completely de-motivate followers leading to low outcome in performance. The second style is the democratic type of leaders. Democratic leaders engage their subjects in the deciding process; hence motivating them to work even better. The input from the followers could be large or small, considering the situation being handled and the leader in question. This style is important and works extremely well when team agreements matter and impact on the desired outcomes. The third leaders are the Laissez- faire leaders, who hardly interfere with the team decision making, hence allowing the followers to make their own decisions. This will only work when the team is capable and contains persons with different qualifications and expertise. Good leaders use any of the leadership styles discussed, but ensure the style will be the most effective within the organization setup (Gill, 2012).

The contingency theory – how situations determine good leadership

Proper comprehension that there is a need for change of leadership styles to suit different situations followed the conceptualization of the contingency theory. Leaders who embrace the contingency theory are those who are able to forecast future situational anticipations of the organization and the best styles to adopt in those times. Leadership styles are, therefore, chosen according to circumstance. Different leadership types will be used in situations where; quick and effective decisions need to be made within a short span of time, when the agreement and satisfaction of followers are mandatory, which task need to be attained and what time is available for the effective achievement of the task, and many other instances. Good leaders will, therefore, be considerate of the surrounding factors before applying any leadership styles. One of the common contingency-based theories is the Path — Goal theory.

In the path-goal theory, leaders should have the ability to motivate their followers so that they accomplish certain tasks without any problems or barriers. Through motivation, the followers of a leader will improve the abilities of the subordinates by removing barriers/obstacles hindering performance, and then clarifying the path that the followers use to reach their objectives, which are common. When the followers get good performance, they believe in their leader and themselves more; hence they start motivating themselves and working on their own abilities to attain goals. Other contingency-based styles of leadership include the transformational and transactional types (Gill, 2012).

Leadership styles

A more in-depth analysis will be given for the styles of leadership as they are what the leaders follow practically when leading other people. For the purpose of this paper, three different styles will be assessed including the servant leadership, transformational leadership and situational leadership.

The servant leadership style

According to Gill (2012), servant leadership entails leaders who have strong values. In essence, servant leaders are those that get into leadership because they have the passion to serve other people. When the leader shows the followers that they are ready to serve them, then the leader will definitely be trusted by the followers. Authors define the servant leaders as a servant first, then a leader. By this, it begins with the leader wanting to serve the people first. After they serve, then consciousness will lead them to wanting leadership. These leaders hardly fight for material possessions, as they acquire their leadership through the best ways (Gill, 2012).

A servant leader serves the people before clinching leadership. Examples of such leaders include Mother Teresa and Nelson Mandela. Such leaders are trusted by the people, and they could also be the best to lead organizations and firms. An example of such an organizational leader is Yazaki Katsuhiko, who is not as common, but very effective in leading mail-order company that is multi-national known as Felissimo. Precisely, servant leadership reflects and is of the view that leaders ought to be servants for them to be effective in undertaking their duties. Leaders, must therefore, prioritize and put the necessities of their followers including clients of organizations and the entire community ahead of personal interests. However, despite being valuable, realistic and valid, servant leadership has limitations in that it has problems that are practically associated with the empirical studies between complexities of human nature and servant leadership (Gill, 2012).

Transformational leadership

Transformational leaders are those leaders that inspire and stimulate/motivate the followers so that extra-ordinary outcomes are reached and the followers are also training on how to be effective leaders themselves. Transformational leaders not only ensure the organizations goals are attained, but also empowering followers into leadership capabilities. The followers are, therefore, strongly founded in that they can either lead the rest, or even adopt changes to ensure company objectives are achieved. In the past, there was a perception that leadership that is transformational was only suitable for military systems. Currently, theories have made analysis and concluded that transformational leadership is also effective in other settings and environments, such as organizations and firms (Bass & Riggio, 2012).

Transformational leaders are more advantaged as they motivate others to work better themselves. The followers that learn from their leaders transform into capable leaders, hence increasing the efficiency level of the organization. These leaders set challenges that are a little beyond their abilities, and strive to attain their goals, making themselves exceptional from other leaders. The leaders also come to get very satisfied and committed followers. Transformational leaders are also benefiting to the followers in the sense they provide attention to them, attending to their needs, and training them to earn their personal potentials in leadership (Bass & Riggio, 2012).

Transformational leadership has many similar characteristics as charismatic leadership. In reality, charisma is just a constituent of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership has a wider scope, and the leaders mostly engage with others and connect with them hence forming a relationship, which makes motivating and advising followers an easier task. Just like in the charismatic leadership, transformational leaders possess specific qualities such as extroversion and confidence, making the leaders good motivators. These leaders develop, implement and adopt changes that are mandatory for the success of the organization (Bass & Riggio, 2012).

Situational leadership

In the situational theory, there is a believe that the behavioral theories are not that effective especially in a world where the society and the organization setup are complicated and that behaviors are useful in some situation and not in others. Situational theory tries to define and explain what leaders can do when encountering different situations in the organization and whether external and internal factors affecting the environment of the company affect the situation being used. According to the situational theory, leadership is impossible if the situational context is not considered and specified. This style of leadership precisely gives priority to factors which are critical in the surrounding conditions, and this environment is what controls the leader’s behavior. These environmental factors in the organization range from task complexities, critical contingencies, and worker maturity together with organization size. Leaders’ behaviors are, therefore, suit for certain circumstances and not others (Fairholm & Gilbert, 2009).

The situational theory or leadership style suggests that the variables of action, interaction and sentiments are the determinants of different situations in the organization. According to Hemphill, a theorist who worked and studied leadership in 1954, different leadership styles are suitable for different environments. The situation differed due to various tasks and roles which depended highly on the different interactions between the positions and authority of the organization and the organization’s structure. The contingency theory, for instance, was suitable when demands are imposed on the situation such that leaders who are task-oriented can work in either hard or easy circumstances. Relation-oriented leaders, in contrary, will work best in environments where leaders have moderate demands and can hence consider the follower’s opinions when making decisions and setting targets and goals (Fairholm & Gilbert, 2009).

Effective leadership styles for today’s organizations

Organizations of today have been forced to embrace change due to the radical changes in both the human resources and technological inputs. For this reason, organizations need leaders who are sober and ready to make decisions depending on the organization’s current situation. This puts the situational leaders in a good position to work in organizations of today. If situational theory is adopted, then diverse situations will be dealt with by a variety of leadership styles that are effective in that situation. Effective leadership in the organizations of today needs leaders who have the ability to adjust and adapt to changes and integrated circumstances. This simply means that flexibility is mandatory for any workforce in today’s organizations, and leadership flexibility can be reached easily if the situational concepts are adopted. It is also necessary to consider that today’s leaders need commitment and competence skills for them to operate more efficiently (Fairholm & Gilbert, 2009).

In concluding this chapter, there are a few comments and opinions to make, linking the theories to the definitions of leadership in the first chapter. Leadership is now linked to certain specific skills and traits in the trait theory, which theorists believed to be innate or in-born. In my opinion, however, there is enough biasness in the traits and transformational theories as the theorists believed that leaders are born and not made. This might be very wrong because despite being born with exceptional qualities that can make them suitable for leadership, acquired skills, knowledge and understanding is what strengthens the qualities of the leaders. On the other hand, transformational theory is effective even in today’s organization, together with the situational theory. Transformational theory is effective in that it creates and maintains a relationship between the leaders and their subordinates. Situational theory is efficient for today’s firms too as it allows the organization to be run using different leadership styles that are effective in different circumstances.

Before choosing the leadership style of the organization, assessments and analysis need to be done to gauge suitability of style, to enhance motivation and performance of followers and subordinates. The authority of the organization needs to meet the followers, understand their qualities and perceptions, and embrace the organization’s culture in selecting the right leaders and leadership styles. Apart from their qualities, leaders are also chosen on the basis of their skills, acquired knowledge and personality to ensure, the best is selected to lead others. Effective leaders that are transformational have assisted many organizations to make profits just by being the right leaders. Being the right leader means having the capacity to influence followers through inspiration and motivation, so that the followers have an easier time to concentrate on performance and goal attainment strategies. Good leaders also reduce the barriers to success in the organization. This will thereby provide the best working environment in the firm, and lead to greater performance by the followers. Subordinates to perform and get excellent outcomes have the ability to motivate themselves to hit higher targets set for them.


Self as Leader

Core values in leadership practice

According to the ethical framework of organizational leadership, leaders must be in a position to establish their morals and core values that will assist them to work in the organization and provide results and the end of every task. In leadership, core values include integrity, authenticity, power, status, wisdom and recognition among others. Different leaders will have different core values that they will use in different situations facing them in the companies. Core values are the personal standards that we set for ourselves so that we act according to them. Core values for leaders are manifested in the morals they have, and the manner in which deal with issues (Wilmore, 2007).

In many ways, the core values of leaders define their character and their personality. Leaders have values which reflect on their spiritual being and their soul, meaning that core values are obviously beyond physical understanding. Leaders’ core values, however, are affected by their surrounding and immediate environment. Values are changed in different circumstances, such as; by getting new experiences that tend to shape value, when emotional support is lost instantly, when patterns and behavioral routines change, when the values are applied and used in new contexts of leadership and when the core values become the center of leader’s lives (Fairholm, 2011).

Different leadership values will apply well in various cultures of the organization. Leaders who have values such as reliability, efficiency, fastness and ability to maintain good flows of work are leaders who can provide services to the followers and clients in a stable way and consistently too. Such leaders take full responsibilities of the organization, including monitoring their subordinates, administrative duties, controlling and organizing their followers and many other related obligations. On the other hand, other leaders have the ability to enhance cohesiveness, embrace togetherness within the organization including the organization’s transactions with other firms, and also involve their followers in participating in organization functions. Such leaders bring together a clan like culture that ensures the organization carries on its functions with a basis of loyalty. These leaders also find it easy to share responsibilities and rewards among the followers and organization employees (Davis, 2003).

Competitiveness and productivity are also core values that leaders need, especially those leading market oriented organizations that are profitable. Such leaders are able to concentrate in both the external and internal factors affecting the organization so as to manage regulators, contractors and suppliers effectively hence gaining power to beat their competitors in business. Other organizations that believe in developing new products and getting new markets for their products need leaders that have innovative and pioneering values. Such leaders have to be able to work flexibly, and adapt to any environments they are subjected. Good leadership values assist leaders to curb ambiguity and uncertainty in organizations, leading to easier chances of attaining great performance and achieving more for their organizations (Davis, 2003).

The leadership ethical framework

Since the early 21st century, the society surrounding organizations and firms has continued to develop, and educators and other relevant professionals have been concerned with ensuring additional value is provided in schools, such values including tolerance and democracy. For a better future in organizational leadership, there has to be an ethical preparation program in schools especially university and college, so that professionals venturing into different leadership oriented professions are the best fit, knowing they understand what ethics is. Citizens of America and other countries, including the leaders of organizations in these countries have continued to be unethical in their undertakings. In summation, leaders have to be examined critically, and both their professional and personal ethics have to be consistent with the ethical code of their country so that they can tolerate the day-to-day decision making processes and other administrative functions (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2010).

Decision making linked to core values

Despite their differences in the values they hold, leaders have a common agenda as to why they make decisions in the organization. Leaders will often be involved with decision making because leaders want to improve their leadership quality by making decisions, to increase the satisfaction of their followers, to enhance good communication channels that will assist in communicating with their subordinates, training their subordinates and lastly facilitating change in the organization. Decisions- making procedures and protocol need to be followed precisely, to ensure sober decisions are made, which will be considerate to the leaders themselves and their followers too (Heller, 1971).

Leaders have certain core values that will assist them to make the right decisions for their firms. These values include trustworthiness, tolerance, curiosity, courage and mutual respect. These values are what give the leaders an edge in decision making. Apart from decision making, these values enhance continuous improvement in the organization, enhancing creativity and client focus, focusing on the fundamental objectives of the firm and being a motivator and a role model to the other individuals working for the firm. Core values have determined the rise of many corporations in the world, stability of economies and prosperity of individuals. Leaders are also encouraged to be more efficient with their communicative processes so that they indulge their followers in participative decision making. Participative decision making happens when the leaders encourage and allow their subordinates to take part in assessments, and give opinions before decisions are made in the organization. This assures the administration of the firm that their workers are more dedicated to attaining organization goals, and they are also motivated towards setting their own targets to ensure the organization’s common goal is reached (Taylor, Aken & Smith-Jackson, 2012).

Organizational change framework

Organizations need a new environment after working for some time without change, so as to enhance leadership abilities, improve on efficiency levels and integrate any developments, say in terms of technological inputs. Change in organizations has been debated severally as the central point of development. Issues resulting and linked to change need to be treated with concern due to the current advancements in market developments, technology, information and resources. The organizational world is not moving in incremental steps as it used to, but in fast and significant leaps hence making necessary new ways of effecting change on the organizations. If organizations are to remain dormant without change, then the most probable effect is that attaining greatness and remaining competitive will prove to be impossible, with many competitors and innovators working within same parameters (Pasmore, 2010). Change in firms/companies/organizations needs a shift to more recent models and procedures of change, which will be addressed in the proceeding paragraphs.

Organizational change strategy

When changing the structure, personnel or culture of the organization, there are four basic models that can be used to ensure sufficiency and competitiveness in the change process. These models include the life-cycle model, the evolutionary model, the debate synthesis model and goal setting model. When leaders, therefore, want to implement organizational change, then they select from the four models, that which they view to be most effective, competent and likely to enhance performance. The life-cycle change model provides that a certain series of prescribed stages has to take place in embracing change. This model is compared to the organism in biology, where living organisms are born, after which they grow, mature and later decline and die. Similarly, firms start as enterprise ventures then they grow and mature to bigger business entities, after which they eventually decline. This model prescribes that change in organizations is beyond the control by leaders, though the leaders affect how fast or slow the change in stages occur.

Evolutionary change is the other model that can be adopted by leaders to change any organization. The theory/model is based on the notions of the Darwin theory of survival. The Darwin theory is known to insist that natural selection leads to adaptations in order to survive (survival for the fittest principle). This natural competition of organisms can be equated to the emerging populations in organizations and the rates of their survival. Business organizations are the most affected by this change as their leaders understand that they need to undergo many failures in risks before they can be successful in few ventures that compensate the failures.

Debate-synthesis models are of the opinion that different sides that oppose each other are in conflict. After resolving the conflict, synthesis equilibrium occurs until other conflicts come up again. An instance is when a younger generation is in conflict with an older generation, in the case of family businesses. When the young generation finally takes over, things will be okay until a different generation is also in conflict. Another example is when a departmental goal conflicts with that of the organization, leading to conflicts that need resolutions.

Goal-setting change model

In terms of efficient and effective leadership, the goal setting model of change happens to be the most supportive. In this model, leaders tend to define the current situation of the organization, and then analyze the position they want the organization to be so that a gap is defined, and strategies are adopted to see that the organization meets its targets. The goal-setting theme is effective in the sense that it involves precise and complete planning processes so that the organizational change processes becomes smoother. In the model plans are established and certain target goals are set, so that action commences in the organization, with the aim of changing the firm for the better. Leaders that are performers and realistic with their endeavors tend to adopt the goal-setting procedure of organizational change as the model has proved to be effective in the past and has worked for many leaders and organizations (Pasmore, 2010).

Despite many leaders opting to use the goal-setting model that is simple, easy to adopt and appealing, other authors and theorists have had a different opinion, suggesting that the simpler and more appealing model is the less effective, in terms of performance and resultant outcomes. The claim is that there is evidence from past experiences indicating that recognizing and adopting complex models of change is the best way to come up with strategies that are efficient. Regardless of these opinions, it is just right to confirm that leaders have to analyze the situations they are in then study the organizational change models and ensure they select models that are most suitable. When changing the organization, there are certain steps that are mandatory to ensure efficiency, these include diagnosis/analysis, planning, action, evaluation and stabilization, unfreezing and refreezing, where the old behaviors of the organization are replaced with better behaviors, ideologies, principles and cultures (Pasmore, 2010).


Assessment is what helps leaders or any other individual understand their behaviors and values well, and how the same affects their performance and the people they are working with. The assessments provide feedback regarding to the leader’s elements that affect the way the leader will behave, in respect to dealing and interacting with his followers and clients.

Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI Assessment)

The LPI assessment is a 360 degree assessment tool for leaders designed to help individuals gauge/measure their abilities and competencies. This is done by assisting the leaders and individuals go through a five-practice application process of exemplary leadership to their real life experiences while heading the organization. When the leaders are done with completing the LPI assessment, they receive feedback reporting on the various behaviors of the five practices of leadership. The results are then compared in that the leaders assess themselves against the observers/raters. The raters are those given the chance to critically evaluate the participant, and give comments and evaluations on what they have observed on their behaviors.

In many circumstances, the LPI report gives a summary of the raters, who may include but not limited to managers of the4 firm, self, co-workers and others that participated in the feedback process. Basically, the observers are asked to rate those who participated on about 30 leadership behaviors. Six questions for each practice which are five in number. Those who participated can view the observer’s average scores and also both self-score for the leadership behaviors through rank-ordered lists and bar graphs. The assessment provides for ranks such as low, moderate and high (CPP Inc., 2013).

DISC online assessment

The DISC online assessment is an assessment done using the internet, and it takes about 15 minutes to complete. After an individual has completed the assessment, a single page document will provide feedback on the primary leadership dimensions. This dimensions range from affirming, inclusive, deliberate, resolute, commanding, energizing and pioneering. The assessment also provides two of these dimensions which need improvement urgently. The assessment harnesses the power of the 3rd generation of the DISC model of human behavior. The assessment, therefore, happens to be the best scientific approach when determining inter-personal skills and personality.

The Parker Team Player Assessment

According to CPP. Inc. (2013), the Parker Team Player (PTP) is an assessment package that has an all included package of materials to offer so that leaders, managers, facilitators in groups, consultants and coaches are able to assess their followers, and assist them in achieving results which are extraordinary and performance oriented. The parker team player has been proven to be easy to use and also versatile, meaning many people can use it as there are many leaders in different sections of management. The package is used to understand an individual’s preferred style as a team player. These styles include; collaborator, challenger, communicator or contributor. If combined with any other assessment tool such as the DISC or the LPI assessment, then the parker team player could be excellent and could also be used in any setting.


Organization leaders and other administrators including managers need to possess certain qualities that will enable them make sound decisions and realize organizational objectives and enhance performance in the workers. These values, including integrity and flexibility, work well in different circumstances and situations, and it is upon the leaders to understand their values and apply them when necessary. Leaders should also ensure they adopt an ethical framework that will assist them in the right decision making processes. Organizational change is the other important aspect in an organization that leaders have to be sober enough to ensure necessary changes are undertaken, as long as the changes are beneficial to the company.

Self-assessment is mandatory and necessary for both the leaders, managers and followers for the purpose of understanding their strengths, and working on their weaknesses, so that performance is fuelled core values are realized, and right decisions are made. Assessments such as the leadership practices inventory (LPI), the DISC assessment and the parker team player assessment are tools that could be used in analyzing personnel so that the right people are chosen as leaders, and that workers get to understand their strengths and, therefore, work to ensure prosperity and performance in the organization.


Leadership in Context

Over the recent years, leadership has emerged out to be the talk of many companies, because of the increasing level of complexities in organizations. Recent surveys and analysis indicate that leadership is not only limited to the managers and other appointed personnel in the organizational setting, but also throughout the firm including employees. Leaders need assistance as they are not the perfect, and do not have the ability to made decisions which are sufficient, provide relevant information and endure efficiency on their own. Many of the critical issues addressed by leaders need to be shared in order to reduce liability and enhance efficiency.

Leaders must learn to acknowledge the contributions of other personnel, who actually assist them with their responsibilities. In newer models of leadership, it is different from older versions because traditionally individuals wanted to lead on their own, get entire recognitions and benefit alone. These individualistic leadership models are outdated and replaced in the modern world, considering the rapid changes taking place in the organizations. Regardless of personal attributions and strengths, new models of leadership imply that despite their leadership titles, such as head of departments and directors, the other people in the organization also count in ensuring leadership is successful. Though they lack the “leadership” title, shared accountabilities and responsibilities, team workers of the organization and social networkers all add up to leadership. Effective leaders, therefore, are those who fight for and motivate collaborations with their followers, and team workers who could also be innovative and contribute to excellent ideas (Turnbull, 2011).

The leadership of today provides that leaders have to share their responsibilities with their followers, and therefore, leaders should no longer term themselves as heroes but embrace collectiveness and equality. Today’s organizations need leadership that is based on certain fundamental aspects. In the current leadership models, leadership involves engaging multiple persons in leadership actions and responsibilities hence embracing shared leadership. Shared responsibility means that duties and responsibilities are done collaboratively, across professional and organizational boundaries. This means that organizations have more leaders, other than the usual top ranked managers (Turnbull, 2011).

Leaders can also be devolved from the high ranks and top positions in the organization so that they are distributed to many levels within the firm. This ends up to taking the form of fresh practices in the organization and leadership takes a new form all together. Innovation is enhanced in such leadership settings as personnel especially the followers tend to be motivated by positions they get as leaders. This leadership style also allows for leadership development as lower level leaders get to receive leadership experience when leadership duties are distributed in the organization. Leadership, therefore, need not be viewed in terms of competencies and behavioral styles, but organizational interventions and leadership practices. In the 21st century, leaders are more concerned with organizational systems, the changing practices in organizations and processes and also connectedness (Turnbull, 2011).

Applying theories and concepts in real life

After understanding the concepts and theories of real life, it is important that leaders and potential leaders like us get to know how to implement the theories and concepts in real life leadership. This section will provide different case scenarios that need analysis, perspectives in terms of systems and behaviors in the organization. Many leaders end up being less effective as they are unable to apply what they learn as learning is different from the applications and practical. After giving different scenarios, different leadership styles will be recommended.


In the first scenario, Andrew who is a leader in a nursing organization, happens to be a democratic leader, and therefore believes in involving the staff in decision making process. Andrew then decides to announce that the staff would fill out staffing assignments as they were complaining in response to staffing assignments. Some of the members of staff looked shocked and unsure while others were cheerful after getting the information. After the week, when Andrew asked the staff for the assignments, he found the sheet unfilled. The question is how Andrew would have averted this terrible situation using the best style of leadership.

In the above case, situational leadership would be the most efficient to apply. The Hersey and Blanchard’s theory of situational leadership is clear that when encouraging participation from staff, it is not the resolution to everything. Situational leaders need to take into account certain things to determine the best style for the situation at hand. In Andrew’s situation, he should have considered matters such as motivation and the capability levels of his staff, the current situation of the organization, which included a staff that was not motivated and rebellious. Andrew should have also gauged to see the mood and environment of the organization, the support he had, and the events that had previously occurred in the organization. He knew that the staff was not motivated to do the staffing assignment. In this case, Andrew should have insisted on using the democratic style of leadership, but he should have motivated the staff before giving them the staff assignments to fill.

Motivation can either be in monetary funds or kind, such as bonuses, increased commissions and many others. If the staff was well motivated, then they would be more innovative, and would also be in the best situation to appreciate assignments from their leader. Andrew was also under the obligation to adapt his democratic leadership style in relation to the staff’s maturity and levels of development. This maturity and development levels are only measured by the staff’s motivation and competency. Creating a link between the leaders and the follower, and ensuring the relationship is close and tight will give the leaders easier time in managing and leading the staff. The other alternative was that Andrew should have focused on the high risk and low relationship focus because the staff was unable to perform the job/task given, or they were unwilling to give it a try then he was supposed to get involved, advise the staff on what to do and provide a working structure which the staff were to follow as a guide.


Zeus, a leader in a business organization realized that one of the most skilled employees in the organization was very promising, did his duties and gave reports in time. The employee always produced good results, but frequently failed to complete certain tasks deliberately. In such a case, Zeus viewed it to be a low task, high relation focus, in that the tasks were easy for the staff member, but he did not want to do them at times and that the relation between Zeus and the staff was close.

Zeus called the employee in his office and talked to him regarding his behavior. They discussed what had caused him not to do the given tasks. The employee was open with Zeus, the leader, due to their close relationship they had. The employee revealed that a former leader yelled at him in view of the mannerism at which he had done the tasks before, yet he had followed the right protocol and procedures as per the organization’s provisions. Zeus, in his response, assured the employee that he had trust in him, and dared him to do the task alone and in the right way. The employee as usual completed the task satisfactorily and efficiently off course using the right procedures. After the task was complete, Zeus praised the employee and from that time, the employee was willing to work without any further rebellions. Zeus continued to motivate the employee, who never reverted to his previous actions of rejecting his duties.

In the above case, when Zeus learnt that the employee could work on his own, he was supposed to continue motivating him. However, in such cases leaders need to get out of the way and allow the followers to work on their own without interference. The only duty of the leader in such a case was to praise and recognize the employee, who was performing good to ensure an organization’s objectives are realized. In addition, the laissez-faire leadership would be relevant in such a situation, because of the abilities of the employee, and the excellent relationship the employee and leader shared. In the laissez-faire leadership, leaders are not involved in decision making as much, because of motivation and the capabilities of the followers. In such a case, the central coordinator who is the leader of the group does not hinder the decisions of the subordinates because of their abilities to make sound decisions that are geared towards efficiency and realization of organization objectives.


In trying to apply the theories and concepts of leadership in real life scenarios, leaders have to be very analytic, understanding and considerate, putting in mind that only good relation between leaders and their followers enable sufficient leadership. It is expected of the leaders to comprehend the purpose and roles of their organizations, embrace control measures for conflicting and dynamic environments, understand the role of leaders in the changing environments of organizations, ensure their organizations are linked to the external world and ensure there is leadership development especially for the followers.

In essence, leadership styles should be adopted by leaders after analyzing the situation and the best alternative as a leadership style. The leadership style chosen depends on the readiness of followers who are being influenced by the leader. The styles will also depend on the differences between relationship behavior and task-oriented behavior. In task-oriented behavior, the leader engages in the issuing of responsibilities and duties to either an individual or a group of persons. When instructing them, leaders tell the followers what to do and the way they are to do it. They also specify on who and when it should be done. In relationship behavior, leaders indulge themselves in two-way or multi-way communication, leading to support, facilitation and listening from followers.


Final Thoughts

Development of leadership

Individuals can only know their capability after they are assessed through the assessment tools; competence/behavior assessment, psychometrics and other relevant ones. Most of these processes and assessments assist individuals to find what others think about them, in terms of leadership qualities, competencies, core values and abilities. For many assessors, these assessments are mandatory before any person can prepare to become a leader.

When developing leaders, they need to develop their own virtues, understand their potential in terms of what they have the ability to do, and inspire them to be leaders they inspire to be. Leadership development is a gradual process that needs patience, and determination to attain. Upcoming leaders need to understand their backgrounds and experiences, their core values and assumptions and their trend of gaining exceptional content that will give them an edge as successful leaders. When developing leaders in organization settings, then it is mandatory that the development is suitable in context to the organization. Development does not refer to the potential leader’s competence alone, but also abilities to work together, and the intention to operate freely and effectively in the organizational context (Turnbull, 2011).

In general terms, developing leadership assists those in positional roles of leadership to inspire and have presence, maintain their values and competence and avoid getting personal with their followers. This means that as individuals learn and aspire to be leaders, they need to comprehend that they are obligated to be willing in order to increase their capabilities in serving others, and have the perception that they have the competence to ensure objectives and goals are met, through the assistance of others, who are below them in ranks (Turnbull, 2011).

Thoughts on ethical leadership

Many people speak of ethical leadership without elaborating and understanding what it exactly is. When authors write about good leadership, what is their perception and what information are they trying to relay to us? There are various facts about leadership that are addressed in this chapter because they include personal opinions and thoughts.

Ethics is what drives leadership, meaning that ethics is the engine and the heart of leadership, and without it there is no leadership. Be it in leadership development or application of leadership in real life situations in the various organizations, the components of ethics are mandatory to ensure leadership is paramount and change-oriented. Integrity, for instance, is a component of an ethics process that ensures leaders get good results and make sound decisions at the end of the day. Also, any kind of leadership is values driven, meaning that morals need to be integrated in any leadership system for it to be termed as effective. No organizations are value-neutral, meaning that leaders in all spheres of organizations need to have values, which are inclusive of ethical values (Komives, Lucas & McMahon, 2009).

Organizational values need to intersect with personal values for good leadership to occur. For there to be ethical leadership, then the leader’s personal values are mandatory, and they include a reflection of core values and how the values are related to the society or community at large. Personal morals assist in curbing ethical dilemmas hence assisting in decision making that is influenced by ethical analysis. Ethics is what that can be learnt. In ethical learning, factors such as application, reflections, conceptualizations and experiences are the main determinants. It is beneficial and advisable that leaders have ethical aspects in them before they can be better actors and decision makers. In most cases, the experiences gained in life are what shape an individual’s ethical perspectives (Komives, Lucas & McMahon, 2009).

Leadership that is ethical-based has to reflect a clear connection between ethical action and thought. It is inevitable in leadership that a link needs to be created between values and moral reasoning. Developing character and morals are also constituents of leadership. Character can be defined using an individual’s behavior and action. There are many leaders that are popular and known, but they lack congruency between their actions and their values, and they hence preach water and take wine, not walking their talk. Leadership that has an ethical basis is that with a shared process. Different members of the organization have the obligation to exercise ethical leadership and act as role models through embracing collectiveness and shared responsibility to enhance good leadership (Komives, et. al., 2009).

As leaders, it is also obvious that every action we undertake is a lesson to others as followers look upon their leaders for guidance and advice. Leaders are the role models in organizations and, therefore, need to conduct themselves as per their value and position. If leaders are role models, then that will have an ethical impact on the people around them, including other organizations, families and the society at large. Leading with the right intentions and applying one’s morals in leadership is something that many leaders hardly do, and this closes doors for opportunities and greater chances of prosperity. This also means that those being assessed for leadership should also be questioned on their moral and ethical views and values (Komives, Lucas & McMahon, 2009).

Essence of major cornerstones in leadership

Leadership has specific features that are viewed to be the cornerstones of leadership and leaders need to embrace these factors to ensure prosperity in their undertakings. To begin with, leaders need to be self-minded. For a leader to be engage with followers, one has to understand his or her self. By being mindful, it entails acknowledging and knowing personal feelings, thoughts, reactions and emotions. Understanding self assists the leader to engage his followers without any conflicts and rebellious situations. Understanding self also entails the awareness of reactions and emotions of others and listening to the inner voice. Good and effective leaders are those that try their level best to be meaningful and understand their followers to extents they can motivate and inspire them to the fullest (Wilson, 2008).

Self-mindfulness is essential due to many factors. To begin with, leaders are expected to be role models to their followers as the followers are always monitoring their leaders and trying to adopt what their leaders do. Regardless of whether the monitoring is intentional or not, followers will always monitor their leaders and pick up their behaviors and engagement vibes. Similarly, self-mindfulness is important because it assists leaders to engage others, understand his followers and know the way they react and operate. In self- analyzing themselves, the leaders need to question themselves on issues of trust and distrust in relating with their followers, and their preferences and performance levels. If leaders are to understand themselves well, then they will work better with others as they will know their limits and emotional connections with others (Wilson, 2008).

In self-understanding, which is another leading factor that is necessary for leadership enrichment, leaders first appreciate who they are by following their self-awareness outcomes and shaping them to personal characters, perspective and approaches. When leaders know their approach to leadership, then they can consciously and actively make decisions and choices on the best manner to interact with others. Leaders who have self-understanding of themselves will find an easier time managing others and achieving more since this understanding derives the difference between who they are and who they want to be. Self-management is also mandatory because with good management of oneself, then a leader acts in a certain way and behaves in a certain manner that is observable by others; hence making the leader a role model to the people he/she is leading.

Personal connections and embracing relationships

Leadership is ineffective where there is no relationship or connection between the leader and the followers/subordinates/staff in the organization or any other set-up. Personal connections and relationships are the primary vehicle for leaders who want to engage with others. Leaders should be able to develop a paradigm shift in the way they relate and view others, especially their followers. Leaders should consider their followers to be equally able, with their own unique desires, needs and goals. It is critical that leaders connect closely with their followers and develop a mutual relationship built upon maturity and promise. For instance, if the leader of any organization is expecting that the junior staff needs to be committed and loyal, then the leader has to reciprocate the commitment and loyalty towards them. If this is to happen, then stronger relationships need to be nurtured, and connections, which are positively motivated, are also necessary for all leadership spheres (Wilson, 2008).

For them to connect to their followers more effectively, and to ensure strong relationships are brewed, connections are created, and results are initiated, then it is necessary that the leaders undertake their obligation through significant actionable steps. Certain actions are key to ensuring the cornerstones to leadership are implemented. First, leaders are expected to build trust as the foundation or basis of effective leader-follower relationship. Leaders also need to motivate and inspire other individuals who are meaningful and helpful to them. Leaders must also learn to take the people-centric approach when controlling and managing employee performance, in case of organization leadership. Finally, leaders are also expected to engage others emotionally so that the followers give their best in their work, leading to a common goal attainment. The cornerstones to engaging leaders all revolve around embracing both personal connections and self-mindfulness (Wilson, 2008).

Evolution of thinking — the impact of learning

Learning in institutions of higher education on leadership is more advantageous than most of us thing. Learning institutions assist those studying leadership in the sense that individuals are trained on the way to tackle leadership, and be distinguished from mere power holders. As different concepts and ideologies of leadership are taught, students get to understand the qualities of good leaders and transform into effective and recognized leaders that are characterized by their power to motivate and appeal their followers hence revealing their moral and ethical values. Learning is a transformational process that alters the position that one was in, to a newer position where the individual is able to create and conceptualize idea that seem unrealistic, but they are actually achievable. Learning has, therefore, the power and ability to give insight to individuals who are expected to be leaders who bring change in the organization world, through the application of acquired knowledge and ideas.

Learning has been effective in that it has transformed us into potential leaders that will be transformational in articulating and defining the vision of any organization. Leadership is a process that is dynamic and requires frequent acquisition of knowledge and training, which make an individual to be accepted by followers as a credible leader. Learning leadership skills and techniques will be relevant in the world of today that is influenced by the rapid change in technology and personnel, as leaders of today are precisely mature and decline using the traditional aspects of leadership which might be inefficient and out of date.

Learning has also been influential in understanding how to tackle different scenarios that leaders face in the course of delivering their duties. The knowledge acquired aids leaders in decision making processes and application of theories that are elaborated through lectures and assignments given. Concepts such as leader-follower relationships and leadership development are critical when leaders are in real life experience as there is a possibility that the leader will have to implement all the knowledge gotten to access the organization’s situation, determine the best leadership model suit for the organization and then apply the most efficient mechanisms that will ensure the organization has a motivated and inspired staff, which results to good performance and attainment of specific organizational objectives. Leaders also learn to be trustworthy and to nurture trust within the employees.

The presence of trust when leaders relate to their followers then both followers/colleagues and their leaders thrive. Relationships between the parties allow for sharing information, embracing expertise, attaining cooperation and working together to hit expectations. These elements of relationship and connectivity are essential for any leaders that want leadership that is transforming to the organization in terms of accruing better returns and seizing available opportunities.

Lessons on leadership

Many theorists and authors have different perceptions of what leadership is and what lessons could be derived from leadership. First, it is very obvious that if great things are to be achieved, then great input in terms of work and time are mandatory. Leaders are also expected to set good examples to others especially their followers so that the leader together with the followers can achieve many things that are meaningful to the organization and the individuals themselves. Leaders are also taught to be risk takers, but to ensure proper mechanisms are used and wise decisions are made before taking the risk. Factors such as reputation, economic effect and liability should be considered before taking any risks that affect the organization directly.

Leaders should always be ready to broaden their experiences, learn more application techniques, evaluate responsibilities and implement the right strategies that will enable leadership development and increased returns for business organizations. For there to be a real success, then there has to be a real relationship between people in this real world. This means that leadership is not possible without relationships especially between leaders and their followers, and the organization and clients. Leaders are also expected to be courageous and positive minded people. Leaders who are optimistic increase their abilities and chances to prosper in their leading positions.

It is also necessary to acknowledge that the leadership trends and theories of the past are still applicable in the present organization world, considering that the organization structures provide for hierarchical positions where leaders are at the top ranks as the employee fall in the lower rankings of the firm. The current organization; characterized by technological innovations, recent and more complex business tools, working environments that are complex and diversified, shifting demographics and the increasing ambiguities in the organization set-ups still have some features that are originally from the past leadership systems including perceptions and opinions of organization administration. Past leadership styles are, therefore, effective and useful in some situations and leaders are obliged to ensure they choose the right leadership styles.

The philosophy of leading

There are a number of ways to lead through motivation and inspiration, according to the philosophies of leadership. Actually, not anyone should lead, meaning that leaders have certain unique aspects that distinguish them from others. No individual should be in leadership, without understanding and appreciating the roles in leadership, and undergoing soul searching concerning the commitments and criteria for effective leadership. It is also clear that leaders are made, through experiences and acquired knowledge, and they are not just born as leaders. Effective leaders are those that learn to work hard, adopt commitment and accept shared recognition (Petty & Petro, 2007).

Leaders also have to be credible, and use their strengths and capabilities to develop themselves to better leaders. When leaders are effective, they try their best to understand their external environments and to ensure links between key objectives of the organization and strategies that need to be implemented. Innovative and operative characteristics of leaders are also necessary especially in business oriented firms, which need creative models and business concepts. Leaders who are quick to actualize change and passionate to support others are trustworthy, and they stand a better chance to conceptualize change and exercise productive leadership (Petty & Petro, 2007).

Final Summary

In conclusion, there are many aspects of leadership that have been discussed and analyzed in the paper. These aspects range from the different definitions of leadership, the components of leadership, core values in leadership and the processes of leadership formation. Leadership was assessed in terms of the duties and responsibilities of leaders, and the way they are expected to influence and motivate their followers. However, it is necessary that this conclusion focuses on a few aspects of leadership that are directly affecting the organizations of today. First, it is notable that leaders need to maintain and control the followers and the organizational systems. Secondly, leaders need to have certain characteristics such as being analytical, initializing and rewarding performance, working in unison with the followers and encouraging collective responsibilities and also being in a position to operate and manage administrative obligations when bestowed to them. What distinguishes the best leaders from other leaders is the possession of characteristics such as empowering, team leadership, visionary and creative.

There is rapid change in the 21st century, and almost every organization is ensuring they have the best leadership that will guarantee them prosperity and success. Despite many position holders claiming to be leaders, they lack certain strongholds that empower their leadership. Effective leaders are also those that apply their ideas and skills to real life situations and ensure they are the ones in control, though they appreciate the presence and abilities of their followers. Today’s leaders are, therefore, expected to be result-oriented, visionary and good decision makers. It is also possible to nurture individuals into real leaders who have the capacity and potential to bring change to organizations.


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We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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