Community-oriented and problem-oriented policing

Policing is an essential issue for communities throughout the world (Newborn & Jones, 2007). For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. The investigation will also explain the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also explore whether or not they are completely different or if there are some similarities. The investigation will also explain which approach to policing, or perhaps a different alternative altogether, makes more sense.

Community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing

Community Oriented Policing

One of the police officers explains that community policing is defined as “a policing strategy that promotes organizational tactics, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime (“Community Policing Defined”).” According to the United States justice department there are three aspects of community policing. These three aspects are as follows:

Community Partnerships- these are mutual alliances that are developed between the police and the individuals and the communities they serve. The purpose of the partnership is to create solutions to problems and assist the community in better trusting the police (“Community Policing Defined”).

Organizational Transformation- this involves the careful positioning of personnel, information systems structure, and organizational management, to sustain the aforementioned community partnerships and practical problem solving (“Community Policing Defined”).

Problem Solving- the strategy of participating in the proactive and systematic examination of recognized problems to create and thoroughly evaluate efficient outcomes (“Community Policing Defined”).

Problem-oriented policing

The other police officer explains the philosophy of Problem-oriented policing. The officer asserted that Cordner & Biebel (2005) explain that problem-oriented policing asserts that law enforcement officers should place a greater amount of emphasis on problems, instead of incidents (Cordner & Biebel, 2005). The authors further explain that

“Problems are defined either as collections of incidents related in some way (if they occur at the same location, for example) or as underlying conditions that give rise to incidents, crimes, disorder, and other substantive community issues that people expect the police to handle. By focusing more on problems than on incidents, police can address causes rather than mere symptoms and consequently have a greater impact. The public health analogy is often used to illustrate this difference in conceptualizing the police role, with its emphasis on prevention and taking a proactive approach. This analogy is useful, too, because it reminds us that even with a strong public health approach, people still get sick and need medical attention, i.e., police still need to respond to calls and make arrests, even as POP prevents some problems and reduces the demand for reactive policing (Cordner & Biebel, 2005).”

In addition the officer explains that one of the primary tenets of the problem oriented policing is that the use of criminal law only serves as one means of policing as opposed to serving as the end objective of policing. This aspect of the problem oriented policing means more than just a change in terminology. The approach asserts that law enforcement should pursue large and significant societal objectives such as the protections of citizens, reducing crime, maintaining order and reducing fear. This approach also asserts that law enforcement agents should lawful and ethical methods that produce the most well-organized and successful results. In some cases “this may involve enforcement of the criminal law, and sometimes it may not. Thus, the words “policing” and “law enforcement” are not synonymous, and law enforcement is not the only, or even necessarily the principal, technique of policing (Cordner & Biebel, 2005).”

Zero-tolerance policing

The officers argued that either of these policing policies was better than a zero tolerance policy. The zero-tolerance policy associated with policing asserts that all crimes should be punished, even minor offenses (Lum, 2009). That is this policy presents a zero tolerance for crime, while the other policing methods discussed place greater emphasis on building relationships with the community and attempting to understand the problems that create crime.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Community Oriented Policing and Problem oriented policing

The advantages of Community Oriented policing are as follows

Community participation-Community oriented policing is unique in that it involves the forming of alliances between police and the communities that they serve. This gives the community some connection to police officers. The alliance also empowers the community because they understand the role that they play in making the community safer.

Police officers are able to build trust with the community- the development of trust is of particular importance in communities where police are not trusted by citizens. This mistrust can make it difficult for the police to solve crimes or to keep crimes from occurring (Macguire, 2004).

Organization Management- this strategy of policing also challenges the management of the overall law enforcement organization. That is this policing strategy provides additional structure where none exists or improves an existing system.

Overall the community oriented policing philosophy is advantageous because it creates awareness in communities using the following three stategies. “One, a criminal will know the area has a cooperation agreement with the residents and the police to be aware of any suspicious activities. Two, residents can count on each other to look out for their well-being and safety against criminal activity or suspicious persons. Third, public relations between residents and police are developed through these programs which also provides education to the residents about police and court procedures (“The Value of Community Oriented Policing”).”


The primary disadvantage of community oriented policing is that people in the community can overstep boundaries. That is in some cases the residents of a community can take matters into their own hands instead of allowing police to handle the situation. This can occur when officers do not properly define boundaries. This is a major disadvantage because some members of a community can be seriously hurt if they attempt to handle crtain situations instead of allowing the police to handle them.

Advantages and Disadvatages of Problem Oriented Policing


Seeks to understand the cause of crime- this particular policing method is aimed at understanding the reasons why crime occurs. In other words it seeks to understand the problem as oppose simply concentrating on the actual crimes being commited. tThis is particularly true of minor crimes.

Wholistic approach to solving and stopping crimes-Because this particular method focuses on the reason for crime it may be extremely effective in combatting crime.


The primary disadvantage of the problem oriented theory is that it can take a great deal of time to actually make a difference as it pertains to reducing crime levels. That is this strategy demands a longer process that can take time to be effective. Because this is the case crime levels could continue to increase or remain the same in the months following the implementation of this type of policing policy.

Similarities and Differences

Both the community oriented approach and the problem oriented approach attempt to build relationships with the community that is being served. Both approaches seemed to be geared toward solving the problem of crime over the long-term. Where as the zero tolerance policy only focuses on the punishment of criminals without confronting the reasons why the crimes are committed. This is true even when the crimes are minor.

The primary difference between the two approaches is the manner in which they address the issue of crime. The community approach relies a great deal on the community to assist in remedying crime. On the other hand the strategies are similar in that they seek to solve the problem of crime in a way that is all encompassing.

Which approach is the most sensible?

The community oriented approach appears to be most suitable. Not only doe s this approach include the participation of the community it also incorporates organizational change. Both community involvement and organizational change is necessary if policing efforts are going to be effective. This approach also emphasizes the importance of trust between the police and the community. The community oriented approach to policing is the most effective in the solving and reducing of crime within a community.


For the purposes of this discussion: Two police officers are arguing about the policies of community-oriented and problem-oriented policing as opposed to zero-tolerance policing. The research analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches to policing. Both approaches seek to understand crime. However, both approaches had disadvantages related to the boundaries of community residents and the time required to solve crime using a problem oriented approach. The investigation also explained the ideologies that support these policy perspectives. The research will also explore whether or not they are completely different or if there are some similarities. The research found that both approaches embraced understanding crime and attempting to stop it systematically. The investigation also found that the community approach to policing was the most sensible.

Works Cited

“Community Policing Defined.”

G Cordner, EP Biebel. Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice. Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 4, Issue 2 (p 155-180)

Lum, C. 2009 Community Policing or Zero Tolerance. British Journal of Criminology.

Maguire, M. 2004. ‘The Crime Reduction Programme in England and Wales: Reflections on the Vision and the Reality’, Criminal Justice 4(3): 213 — 37.

Newborn T., Jones T. 2007. Symbolizing crime control. Theoretical Criminology. Vol. 11(2): 221 — 243;

The Value of Community Oriented Policing.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper