Boron Composite Structures in Aviation Paper

Boron Composite Structures in Aviation

The purpose of this paper is to discuss, and analyze the development and application of boron composites in airframe structures.


Compounds of boron, most notably from unfinished borax ore, known as Tincal, were exported from Tibet in olden times. Historically, boron has been used for refining gold and silver in Arabia, ceramic glazes in China, and embalming in Egypt.

During the 13th Century A.D., “Regular imports of Tincal (name derived from tincana, the Sanskrit word for borax), from the Far East into Europe began along trade routes taken by Marco Polo’s caravans. The source of Tincal (Tibet) and its methods of production remained a secret closely guarded by Venetian traders for four centuries.”

Boric acid, a mild antiseptic, was isolated in the laboratory by chemistry professor William Homberg in 1720 and was discovered also occurring naturally from steam vents in Tuscany, Italy. Sir Humphrey Davy, a British chemist, and two French chemists, Joseph Gay-Lussac and Baron Louis Thenard, discovered boron in 1808 concurrently. However, it took another 155 years before science turned its focus from borax to boron, and began to reveal the secrets of this mysterious and valuable element.

“The recovery of pure crystalline boron did not succeed until the 1950sBecause of its ability to absorb neutrons the lighter isotope is important as an alloying component of boron steels used in nuclear reactors” (Stark, H.C). The revival of interest in boron in the late fifties and into the sixties was driven by the ability of the U.S. To introduce large quantities into a potentially lucrative global market. The elemental properties of boron were now well-known, and chemical variants began to find application in: grinding materials, lightweight armor, rocket motor propellant, and tools for metalworking.

Aerospace industries constantly seek new or improved hard, lightweight, heat resistant materials that can be introduced cost effectively into the manufacturing process. The introduction of high strength boron filaments and boron composite epoxy in the early 1960s, although expensive, lead to the rise of composites technology in aerospace manufacturing. Ceramic fibers including boron carbide were developed for use in heat-resistant composite materials such as ceramics.

Many components of helicopters, military aircraft, civil aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, including satellites and space shuttles, are made from these high-strength, lightweight composites. Different kinds of fabrics and widths of woven composite filaments (some up to 60″ wide) substantially increased the speed of hand lay-up processes. Boron’s superior draping ability was enormously helpful in the manufacturing of complex and concave shaped products.

The emerging business of boron was clearly on the rise. Industrial consumption of boron in the world grew from 239,000 metric tons in 1964, to 443,000 metric tons in 1970.

Driving this growing market (especially in aerospace) were boron’s inherent properties. It has an exceptionally high melting point, which is one reason it is very difficult and expensive to extract. It has the strength of steel, but is as light as aluminum.

Boron composite epoxies are very strong adhesives, corrosion and temperature resistant. Components bonded with boron adhesives require less maintenance. NASA found they could reduce the weight of the space shuttle by using these materials. “By using boron fiber-reinforced materials, there has been a saving of 20% of the take off weight of space shuttles” (Attallah).


In the 1980s boron-reinforced aluminum composites were becoming an industry standard. Improvements in the mechanical properties, resistance to crushing of the filaments, the general robustness of the composite material, and the capability of being reliably shaped and joined led to the favorable reception of these composites.

Since the 1970s boron epoxy and boron fiber composites have been successfully demonstrated on various aircraft airframes including: the horizontal stabilizer of a General Dynamics F-111, the rudder on a selection of 50 McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantoms, and the tail unit of the F-15A in twin fins and rudders

In the late 1980s the Department of Science and Technology Organization (DSTO) a division of The Department of Defense developed a new crack patching system for aircraft, ships, and other structures. Similar in concept to repairing car body panels with fiberglass, DSTO used a boron composite material, Bortex, to repair cracks in critical airframe and structural components, such as the wings of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, and aileron hinges on the Hornet fighter, with patches which are even stronger and stiffer than carbon fiber.

An Australian-based company, Helitech, signed a licensing agreement with DSTO in 1993 and has applied the Bortex crack patch to ageing U.S. Air Force C-141 Starlifter transports and an F111 wing-torque box (see fig. 1). With the Department of Defense under increasing pressure to save money and become more efficient, helping improve its customer’s bottom line is now an important justification for much of the R&D, which DSTO carries out.

Research in the long-term exposure of boron epoxy composites in the tropics, completed in 2000, produced in-depth knowledge of the composite’s shear capabilities in an environment where moisture uptake of the material was as high as 85%. The experiment, which lasted three and half years, showed there was no significant change to the composites bonding ability.


Boron composites were first employed in airframe manufacturing in Grumman Corporation’s F-14A twin-engine, carrier-based jet fighter engineered for the U.S. Navy. “The F-14 will be the first aircraft designed from inception to utilize boron composite outer skins on the horizontal stabilizer over an aluminum honeycomb core (See fig. 2).

To avoid the weight penalty of mechanically fastening the composite fibrous skin to metal, the company uses a boron composite-titanium subassembly that is bonded to the honeycomb core Structural testing of flight hardware will involve two complete static test airframes and various key components, including titanium wing box beams and boron epoxy stabilizers.”

The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle’s airframe is partially constructed using boron composites. The twin tail and rudders are boron composite skin over a honeycomb metallic structure. Like the F-14, boron composite materials make up a small percentage of the complete airframe.


The use of boron composite epoxies in aerospace manufacturing has far surpassed boron composite fabrics. Although boron composites have successfully tested in many types of aircraft and have proven superior structural replacement for certain metal alloys, their use has been constrained to test articles, the empennage and small non-load bearing components of the Grumman F-14 Tomcat, and the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle.

Boron fiber composites are also finding usage and acceptance in the marketplace of golf clubs, tennis rackets, ski poles and other sporting equipment.

In today’s competitive world of aerospace technology, cost ratios of boron composite materials to other composites must be addressed if boron composites are to be practical. Boron composites continue to be almost five times more expensive than carbon/carbon or graphite composites. The cost of refining boron and the creation of the actual fiber needs to be reduced and aligned with current industry financial abilities, if the use of boron-based composites in the manufacturing of aircraft structures is to be adopted.

Works Cited

Anft, Torsten. “Grumman Prepares the F-14A for its First Flight.” INTERAVIA, November 1970.

Attallah, Moataz M.”boron in Materials Technology.” The American University in Cairo.


Buckingham, David A. & Lyday, Phyllis A. ” boron in Materials Technology.” USGS Open File Report 01-006.


Editors History. “The Story of Borax.” Rio Tinto Borax.


Shankar, Krishnakumar. “Composite Material.” Composites and Adhesives Home Page.


Stark, H.C. “boron — From Eye Drops to Rocket Propellants.” GmbH. 2001.


Vodicka, Roger.” boron in Materials Technology.” Defense Science & Technology Organization.


Werheit, Helmut, Dr. ” boron and boron-rich Solids.” Gerhard Mercator Universitat.


shows the placement and visual of a boron patch

F-14 Stabilizer showing areas of boron composite usage

Editors History. “The Story of Borax.” Rio Tinto Borax.

Attallah, Moataz M.”Boron in Materials Technology.” The American University in Cairo.


Buckingham, David A. & Lyday, Phyllis A.”Boron in Materials Technology.” USGS Open File Report 01-006.


Vodicka, Roger. “Boron in Materials Technology.” Defense Science & Technology Organization.

Anft, Torsten. “?

Baker, Alan Dr. “Australian Research into Aircraft Applications of High-Performance Composites.”


Anft, Torsten. “?

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper