First presented in the mid-1980s in American Law Schools, Critical Race Theory contends over time white supremacy and racial influence over African-Americans, institutionalizes and fosters all minorities. This fostering manifests an idea known as White Privilege, or the idea influence and supremacy perpetuatesassisting the dominant race, in this case European-Americans (Taylor, Gillborn & Ladson-Billings, 2016). Critical Race Theory and White Privilege admit not all European-Americans are racist; many simply benefit from a status or class privilege. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, this idea expanded into most social sciences and education (Taylor, Gillborn & Ladson-Billings, 2016). A cursory literature review illuminated several inequities where African-Americans seem to be on educational policys short side. These articles attempt a potential discourse examining racist policies results without addressing the root causations. The first area, new teachers are predominately white while students are largely minorities leading to a misunderstanding between the two. Second, teacher preparation programs have not adjusted practices concerning the racial disparities urban schools faceand therefore education collegesare not adequately preparing teachers to face challenging classrooms. Third, curriculum designers work without considering challenges faced by minorities. Finally, like P-12 educators, colleges and universities failconfronting the race issue or discussing institutional race disparities.
Conducting this limited literature review, although quoted three times, scholars lacked studying and understanding the impact Critical Race Theory has on curriculum, instruction and assessment (Berry, 2015). The first articles authors substituted the failing to understand privilege as failed preparation and understanding (Ares, Evans, & Harnischfeger, 2018). This ignoranceleads to deficit thinking towardsminority students, and then leads to lower expectations regardingachievement by minority students (Ares et al., 2018). The prevailing discussion, as Critical Race Theorists will admit, there will be blame placed by the privileged class on the minority classes and their issues. Numerous articles recommend teacher preparation programs be reevaluated and overhauled as these programsfail to train adequately the on strategies effectively educatingAfrican-American students.
Overhauling teacher preparation programs has yielded little beyond discussion and even less action at the collegiate level. Oftentimes, leaving school districts to design their own programs addressing district racial disparities issues (Cross, 2003). Authors point to methodologies to address disparities between the teachers and the students, never addressing the causation. Although these suggestions effectiveness ranges, they do little to address the destructive racists ideals White Privilege caused African-American students and other minorities (Cross, 2003; Ares et al, 2018). Ares et al. (2018) wrote, Our study site was a high school sophomore class in a progressive program intended to prepare future teachers, filled mostly with Black and Latinx students. Their teacher worked to help them envision democratic views of schooling and the ways urban schools often reproduce inequity. Teachersunderstand the differences, yet push the status quo, primarily to maintain their gained status or perceived privilege.
Several articles highlight the issue racism directly presents the current curriculum. A few articles highlighting racism in the curriculum referenced English courses lacking balance by presenting mainly Eurocentric articles, stories, and characters (Frank, 2014). English and Literature classes fair the same, providing fewopportunities were students candeviate away and learn anything other than proper white English (Peters, 2015). Current curricular classes offer few opportunities where students can use African-American (Ebonics) language as expressions either orally or written (Peters, 2015).
History courses, demonstrated teaching African-American history duringBlack History Month in February, the shortest month, while the remaining months lackabalanced Black History presentation. Although, Lackey (2017) does discuss history classes being whitewashed or sanitized where race may be left to the teachers implications or the students interpretation. Both interpretations form unfair and unwarrantedAfrican-American studentpredispositions. Todayshistory classes faildiscussing issues, ratherteachers presentthe same limited narratives and the few minority personalities leaving students few controversial or race issue discussionopportunities (Lackey, 2017).
Mathematics class level or teacher quality demonstrated little effort challenging minority student thinking (Morvan, 2014). The OECDs Equations and Inequalities: Making Mathematics Accessible to All report argues students with difficulties in mathematics and disadvantaged students stand to gain the most from highly qualified teachers, but unfortunately, they often are paired with the least-skilled teachers (Morvan, 2014). Morvan (2014) admits this phenomenon does not occur only in Math. Interestingly, Morvan (2014) points out school level does not prevent or preclude discriminatory practices.
The curriculum extends to the elementary level as Morvans (2014) articlediscusses as early as elementary school racist tendencies and practices concerning course selection occurthis practice occurs even when selecting group-levels inside theclassroom. Morvan (2014) does concede teacher choice; experiences and prejudices may be the resultantaction.When a student becomes ahigh school student, the segregation based on race grows evidenced by thecourses offered and selected; and the tracks students follow as they matriculate high school (Morvan, 2014). Morvan (2014) does concede some segregation occurs based on other factors such as socio-economics but argues race asa leading factor. Whenever racist or discriminatory practices occur, the playing field tilts negativelyagainst African-American students (Ares et al, 2018; Cross, 2003; Morvan, 2014). The negative tilt prevents African-American students from learning on a level playing field with their European-American counterparts (Morvan, 2014).
Higher education, the college and university levels appearno better addressing racism andcurriculum. The literature explicitly states multicultural education and anti-racism arenot the same. Peters (2015) succinctly confirms the ideawhen he states, Anti-racist education differed strongly from multicultural education, designed to eliminate the practice of classifying people according to their skin color or racial identity. Despite theadvances, leaders in higher education believe they made, offering programs and courses, numerous authors countered those contentions. Peters (2015) contends professional learning presenters do not speak regarding racism and gender at professional conferences, when writingjournal articles or during general class discussions. Additionally, higher education has taken little to no action to better prepare teachers by providing curriculum-ending actions extending privilege andracist sentiments saturating the learning environment (Peters, 2015).
Failing research and extensive literature explicitly addressing the root causes racism inflicts, there are enough sources discussing the backside, the consequences, or damages the racist behaviors ingrain. The available literature indicates consistency with the tenants Critical Race Theory and White Privilege present: lacking diversified teaching, especially urban areas where up the highest concentration. The literature extends racisttenants manifest themselves deeply penetrating current P-20 curriculum and by extension infiltrating the classrooms where the curriculum occurs. Not presenting or discussing racisms tenants, they are seen flooding teacher preparation programs through the exclusionary processes. Honestly, scholars like Peters (2015) contend higher education prepares and teaches students, as an overt privilege,thusthe ways of racism seep down the curriculum. Therefore, this discussion must continue and more articles need written.
- Ares, N., Evans, D. M., & Harnischfeger, A. M. (2018). Systemic constraints on students appropriation of reform oriented curriculum.Critical Questions in Education,9(1), 1-21.
- Berry, T. R. (2015). Me and Bill: Connecting black curriculum orientations to critical race feminism.Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association,51(5), 423-433. doi:10.1080/00131946.2015.1076687
- Cross, B. (2003). Learning or unlearning racism: transferring teacher education curriculum to classroom practices.Theory into Practice, 42(3), 203-209.
- Frank, J. (2014). James Baldwins Everybodys Protest Novel: Educating our responses to racism.Educational Philosophy & Theory,46(1), 24-31.
- Gibson, C. L. (2018). Social Media: A vital tool in teaching contemporary black American protest.Midwest Quarterly,59(4), 386.
- Lackey, M. (2017). The existence of racism in high school history classes.Lucerna,1123-32.
- Morvan, J. (2014). Making visible and acting on issues of racism and racialization in school Mathematics.Brock Education Journal,27(1), 35-52.
- Peters, M. A. (2015). Editorial: Why is my curriculum white?Educational Philosophy and Theory, 47(7), 641-646. doi:10.1080/00131857.2015.1037227
- Sharma, M., & Kuper, A. (2017). The elephant in the room: talking race in medical education.Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice,22(3), 761-764. doi:10.1007/s10459-016-9732-3
- Taylor, E., Gillborn, D., & Ladson-Billings, G. (Eds). (2016).Foundations of Critical Race Theory In Education: Second Edition.New York: Routledge.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!