Language acquisition is an aspect that comes about every day yet it is a mystic achievement of childhood. An important element learned is that language is acquired by means of knowledge and cognition of the semantic, syntactic, phonological, pragmatic and morphemic aspects of written as well as oral language. For instance, the children will respond to the languages that they hear in their environment. Children do in fact react to being in settings where oral and written language are employed and therefore gain ways on understanding how to use them as time progresses. How children come to learn how to speak and have language proficiencies is outlined through the collaboration of nature and nurture. I have learned that child development comes with maturation, in addition to, the various stages of development. I have also learned and come to the understanding that infants and toddlers have readiness, potential and inquisitiveness. They also have interest in association, in building their own learning and in growing with everything their environment hands them (Otto, 2014).
I have also learned that during their infancy period, the brains of toddlers are programmed to learn and understand language. This encompasses both hemispheres of the brain. I have learned that the process of the infants learning language takes into account nonverbal communication, dispensation of sounds into messages that are meaningful as well as learning to imitate and replicate such sounds to generate spoken language. In general, this has reinforced my knowledge base and also in the provision of more prospects for the growth of the toddlers. This experience will have a significant impact on me and my community as I will be able to communicate these new ideas and notions to the toddlers and students. In addition, it helps me understand the importance of the relationship between the caregiver and infant that improve language development (Otto, 2014).
Hour of Silence Reflection
Being non-vocal for the one hour was not an easy task, I faced numerous challenges but at the same time it was comprehensively eye opening. In the hour of silence, I came to learn that is quite challenging for the other individuals to read or completely understand what I was trying to say or relay to them. I have come to understand that speaking or uttering out words that we wish to convey are significantly important in communication and these are elements that I had taken for granted until this moment. One important aspect that I have come to understand in this experience is the importance of verbal communication. This is because non-verbal communication more often than not co-exists with non-vocal cues in order to reinforce the message in a clear manner and also make a lasting impression. Without speaking, it was difficult for the other individuals to fully comprehend my statements and therefore easily misunderstood what I was trying to relay. For instance, it was quite hard to ask a person for a particular book or open a certain page. I came to the realization that in order to be understood, I had to write down almost everything.
In addition, I have come to have a whole new admiration and understanding as well as expanded my understanding of those who cannot speak. This experience had given me the realization as to how difficult it becomes for the people who are dumb to relay what they want to pass through to other individuals. In addition, I have come to understand the importance of non-verbal cues and how difficult it is for these individuals to learn each and every one of them. I now understand the challenges the mute go through in making certain that the other party fully comprehends what they are trying to communicate.
Reflection for Chapters 6 & 7
Preschool kids do not yet have the ability to have internal dialogue with themselves. Rather what they speak about directly mirrors what is in their thoughts and thereafter think aloud. I have learned that one of the ways in which they develop language is through phenomes or sounds. The other way is through semantics and also developing their syntactic knowledge. I have therefore come to understand that the semantic together with syntactic skills will have an impact on how effective the children will utilize the context of what they are reading (Beaty, 2012). On the other hand, phonological skills have an influence on their utilization of the association between sounds and letters. This knowledge base will be of great significance to me as I understand that the semantic level of knowledge of the preschoolers increases when additional words are increased in the expressive as well as receptive vocabularies. In addition, I have learned that in this setting, written language is imperative as the children slowly begin to comprehend that letters can be linked with certain sounds and also with certain words (Otto, 2014).
In the development of language of preschoolers, the responsiveness, patience, warmth and also fitting extent of structure and control of the teaching behavior of the caregiver or parent play a significant role. I have learned that linguistic scaffolding is imperative and suitable for the interaction with preschool children. However, this is dissimilar from that which is employed with infants and toddlers. Some of the ways in which this can be done is through the restatement and expansion of their statements and also making remarks and asking exploratory questions to instigate them to add to their stories and carry on providing details (Epstein, 2007). In addition, I have learned that as a teacher, my guided activities will be determined by the extent of understanding of the children and also the length and occurrence of their attention spans.
Book Analysis of “I went Walking”
To begin with, I Went Walking is a simple and amusing read aloud picture book whose story line follows a crazy haired boy’s wander through the landscape. The question frequently posed is “What did you see?” and has a reply that is patterned. Together with the preamble picture illustrating part of a barn yard animal, the book quickly appeals and entreaties children into the story. The book encompasses a repetitive rhyme that will be largely cherished and esteemed by the young individuals. The young boy perceives a black cat, followed by a brown horse and thereafter a red cow and so forth, and before he recognizes it, he is being followed by the whole zoo (Williams, 2000). Regardless of the fact that the text is not distinctively imaginative, it is the illustrations that bring the appeal. To be more precise, the illustrations made by Julie Vivas in the book breathe life into the parade in attractive and sprightly watercolors. For instance, when the pink pig looks at the small boy, he sprays off his mud-covered body with a hosepipe. In addition, the big fonts, the constant repetition of the words “I went walking” and “What did you see?” together with the pleasant art are what make the tale to be such a splendid story time book. In addition, there is a pictorial predicting game fashioned by the introduction of every animal only to some extent in the beginning (Williams, 2000). Bits and pieces of the animals are presented on one page and shown on the following page. In analyzing this particular book, it can be seen that kids will enjoy and have fun pinpointing the different animals, the different colors and also reciting the catchy text. Another element that makes the book a success is the fact that the story is succinct and therefore does not bore kinds who usually have a low span of attention (Williams, 2000).
Reflection for Chapters 8, 9, 10 & 11
In reflection, one of the most important aspects I have learned is that it is not a must for the acquisition of speech sounds by the student to necessarily go in tandem toe to toe with the developmental charts. Nonetheless, any articulation problems that influence the speech articulacy of the child ought to be observed and taken note of (Otto, 2014). For children at the kindergarten stage, acquiring semantic knowledge takes into account learning new vocabulary. Language development, both oral and written, for children at the kindergarten stage can be enhanced through a number of different ways (Otto, 2014). Some of these ways can include cultivating instructional conversations, employing a range of questioning approaches and also linguistic scaffolding to increase the level of participation by the children in discussions in the class (Otto, 2014).
For children in the primary years, this is the period when their phonological knowledge is all the more impacted by their experiences with reading and writing. I have learnt that it is apparent that with more time being spent in school and in having all the more concentration on formal instruction, the language setting of the children in primary fundamentally transforms compared to those of preschool and kindergarten. I have also learnt that at this phase, they have more full delineations and comparisons when talking about particular objects. In addition, the various elements of written language are impacted by the contexts encircling them. I have also learned that the children will indicate cognizance when they are granted prospects at home as well as school to utilize writing in different manners. In taking these observations into consideration, I have understood that it becomes more possible for the teacher to establish, develop and execute curricula (Otto, 2014).
Book Analysis of “Quick as a Cricket”
Quick as a Cricket is a book by Audrey Wood that employs rhymes and lovely pictures to take children on an ecstatic revel of self-awareness. In particular, the book takes into account a boy who makes a comparison of himself to a range of different animals. For instance, there is quiet as a clam, loud as a lion, gentle as a lamb and tough as a rhino. Eventually, he raises up his arms and proclaims, “Put it all together and you’ve got ME!” An important element that can be perceived in the analysis is that the author makes comparisons. This is from the fact that they shift from, for example, being as quick as a cricket to being as slow as a snail. It is significant to contemplate and understand this topic, for it lets the mind to discover difference, prospect, and change (Wood, 2009). Children will be more enthusiastic to accept the notion that one thing can consist of conflicting ideas, and therefore will be more equipped to mull over and tackle life. The book can be delineated as a celebration of the developing and increasing self-awareness of a child, and also acts as a leading illustration of how books can make a contribution to this aspect. Regardless of whether the boy is weak or strong, daring or wary, at the end of the day, the boy revels all different, seemingly conflicting parts of himself. In the classroom, this particular book can be vital in getting the students to know each other and also gain knowledge and understanding on similes in a fun and enjoying way (Wood, 2009). Aside from having different animals together with a delineation using adjectives of what the animal may be, the book contains very attractive and colorful pictures and illustrations that easily capture the attention of the children. In particular, this can be employed to help students make drawings of themselves and thereafter write different descriptions that pinpoint what they consider their abilities to be (Wood, 2009).
Reflections for Chapters 12 & 14
To begin with, in reflecting upon language assessment, I have learnt that evaluating the language development of young children is imperative for early childhood education. A very important element that will be of benefit in the forthcoming periods is the understanding that by being cognizant of the strong suits and downsides of certain kinds of evaluations increase my capability of being able to utilize evaluations to generate developmentally fitting classrooms and activities (Otto, 2014). I have learnt that as a teacher, the evaluation is done with an emphasis of three particular aspects. To begin with, I ought to keep a documentation of the language development of the children within the classroom as a foundation for developmentally fitting learning activities. Secondly, I ought to make observations to perceive any delays or hindrances to language development and lastly making a diagnosis of the language proficiencies for certain areas of challenge (Otto, 2014).
In addition, I have learnt that in order to increasingly enhance language development of the child, it is imperative to have constructive connections between the school and home. In undertaking this, I have realized that it is important for the parent to be cognizant of the curriculum being taught in the classroom and also increasing their cognizance in the role they play in development of their children’s language and literacy. I have learnt that having more familiarity with any kind of issues that the children’s household faces makes it possible to have more impact on aiding their need in the transition between the school and home every day (Otto, 2014). I have also learnt that by having learning community classrooms it becomes possible to place an emphasis on learning activities. More so, this enables the children to learn how to share, concentrate on mutual objectives and how to make contributions to the learning tasks at hand.
Book Analysis of “Susan Laughs”
Susan Laughs is a short story that outlines a variety of mutual feelings and activities experienced by a little girl named Susan. Susan goes swimming with her father, works hard in school, plays with her friends, as well as rides a horse. However, it is not up until the culmination of the story that we find out that Susan uses a wheelchair. The book takes into account what Susan can accomplish and demonstrates the young girl in a positive manner by outlining the several hobbies and activities that she takes part in. In particular, the book mirrors the aspect of acceptance amidst children who have disabilities as one of the pages illustrates all of them playing together and laughing. It outlines that they are similar to all children and ought not to be perceived or treated otherwise. This tale can be employed as an outstanding classroom tool to enable discussions and take into consideration questions and worries regarding disability. In addition, the book could be easily personalized to discuss explicitly about a certain child by basically altering the name as you recite the story (Willis and Ross, 2000).
In addition, Tony Ross who is the illustrator utilizes pencil together with pastel crayon to generate animated pictures. More so, these illustrations are imperative to the book owing to the fact that there are two words for every page. The illustrations are animated and considerate and aid children to be aware of their own feelings and experiences by relating to Susan’s sentiments, feelings and accomplishments. Children are swiftly engaged with the rhythm of the text and the attention generated by the pictures. The utilization of rhyming and repetition on every page of the book instigates a smooth flow of the story which as a result makes it much easier and interesting for the young children (Willis and Ross, 2000).
Language Observation #1
Age: 29 months
When and where did this observation take place?
The observation took place at the home and family setting.
10 utterance language sample:
Me: Eat some yum?
Child: Yum yum
Me: What is that Marcy?
Me: Dance Dance Marcy
Child: *child dances*
MLU: 1.0 to 2.0
Were there articulation/phonological concerns?
There were no articulation/phonological concerns because the child was able to articulate words in accordance to her age range.
Were there morphology/syntax concerns?
There were no syntax concerns or worries as Marcy was able to mention yum in the same sequence.
Were there semantic concerns?
There were no sematic concerns or worries as Marcy was able to comprehend what the statements meant and was able to respond in kind.
Were there pragmatic concerns?
There were no pragmatic concerns as the child was able to interact in responses and conversations between me and her. When I asked her questions she responded.
How is the child’s overall language development?
The child’s overall language development is properly on course. There are no major worries at the moment.
What should be recommended to help this child?
The recommendation for this child is to help using illustrations and pictures to make her have more understanding.
Language Observation #2
Age: 50 months
When and where did this observation take place?
The observation took place at the family setting.
10 utterance language sample:
Me: What is that? (pointing at car)
Allen: Brum Brum
Me: Allen, Allen, Allen, Look here
Allen: Still distracted
Me: Allen, have some juice
Allen: (takes one sip)
Allen: becomes completely distracted by a cat walking past the room
Me: Allen, more juice
Allen: (Completely ignores me)
Were there articulation/phonological concerns?
There were articulation issues. Allen was not able to maintain full speeches regarding the car and make proper pronouncement
Were there morphology/syntax concerns?
Through the 15-minute period, I was not able to detect any concerns. However, with the utterances and interaction, there were no enough aspects to detect such problems.
Were there semantic concerns?
There were a number of issues. He barely could create and utter sentences in a proper manner for his age
Were there pragmatic concerns?
There were pragmatic worries and concerns in the sense that Allen could not fully keep up with the conversation and relations that we had. He got easily distracted and ignored activities very easily
How is the child’s overall language development?
The child’s overall language developing is under-developing. For his age, Allen ought to be able to speak and make proper wordings and interactions.
What should be recommended to help this child?
The recommendation given is for the child to have therapy and be given illustrations such as colorful books.
Reflections for Chapters 3 & 13
In the contemporary world, linguistic diversity is not a surprising aspect but is rather becoming more and more common. Therefore, there is the aspect of learning a second language. I have learnt that students or children can grasp the language better through the method of explicit teaching. The possible inspiration for such direction is the thought of relation between recall and stimulus (Otto, 2014). I have also learned that another dimension of teaching languages is that of providing cues to learning through the use of “pairing.” In this method, abstract images are shown in relation to certain characters that aid the memorizing process (Otto, 2014). Images can be an aid to memory. However, the difficulty arises from the fact that the relationship between a character and corresponding radical is not very direct phonetically. They may vary substantially (Otto, 2014).
I have also learned that to grasp these two contexts of EFL and ESL, there are some different strategies that can be used by the instructor or teacher. In particular, there are approaches and recommendations that can be executed by the teacher in the English language class. On the context of English as a Second Language, the teacher can hand out assignments or homework considering the fact that there are vast prospects outside the classroom setting. Also, the students can be asked to maintain a journal record with entries of their learning of different aspects outside the classroom (Longcope, 2009). Self-determination and self-direction can be encouraged when the learners have different prospects away from the classroom setting. This way, the students can pursue different opportunities externally and heartened to learn and study independently. These twofold benefits that come about from ESL make it easier for the teacher to educate in the classroom and also encourage students’ independence.
Book Analysis of a Children’s Literature Book
The selected children’s literature book is Clip-Clop by Nicola Smee. The storyline of the book encompasses barnyard animals that are friends as they get on a riveting ride with Mr. Horse. Different animals ask Mr. Horse for a ride. It first starts with the cat, then dog, then pig and eventually duck. They ask the horse to go faster and faster until they all fall down into a soft pile of hay (Smee, 2006). Being very anxious and worried for their safety, the horse checks up on his friends only for them to ask the horse to go for another ride again. This playful narrative seizes the attention and appeal of the children. Together with the sound effects and the repetitive phrases, the book beseeches the participation of the children (Smee, 2006). Children are swiftly engaged with the rhythm of the text and the attention generated by the pictures making them more captivated to learn more. In particular, the very simple pictures together with the white space make the book appropriate for children. In addition, the animals within the book have been portrayed with thick black outlines that are complete with moderate swabs of watercolor and are drawn in a style that is not appealing to children (Smee, 2006). More so, the book enthuses playful engagement and can develop the sounds of language to autonomously reading phrase by phrase. More so, the book would be fitting for the classroom setting as it can offer powerful social support for children, in the sense that they can be granted the prospect to play with sounds, which will facilitate their deciphering to be free of mistakes. In assessing the book, its joyful and friendly sequence will help in developing the foundations of language for the children that will go very far with regard to learning and amusement (Smee, 2006).
Special Needs Summary
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
In definition, autism spectrum disorder is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder that mars the ability of a child to communicate and interrelate with others. It also takes into account constrained repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. These issues bring about considerable impairment in societal, work-related and other areas of functioning (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
One possible problem is the failure to place the individual sounds of spoken language in perspective. For example, the individual will frequently mispronounce words and will less probably place the work into perspective to rightly see the intended word. They also lack the capacity to infer when listening to others (Schoen et al., 2011).
ASD causes morphemic problems such as the omission of the past tense. Other issues encompass issues with the parsing of subordinate clauses that follow verbs of cognition (Vulchanova et al., 2012). Another problem is difficulty in comprehending complex wh-questions, for instance, where the wh-phrase is hauled out from a lower syntactic position in the inserted clause (Belkadi, 2006).
Semantics is delineated as the meaning and context behind language. Individuals suffering from ASD have difficulties comprehending the purpose or intent of communicative actions, getting a hold of the relevance of a conversation and understanding another’s language. This can be challenging for the reason that if the intent of communication is taken the wrong way between two communicative individuals, a line could be crossed (Bernstein and Tiegerman-Farber, 2009).
Pragmatics is delineated as the rules and guidelines of socialization. With regard to ASD, the children have yet to completely develop the interrelationship between social interaction and communication. This implies that the children are not cognizant of how to employ language for social intents. For instance, failing to look at someone they talk to, not taking turns or being able to ask questions (Bernstein and Tiegerman-Farber, 2009).
Teaching kids with ASC on how to communicate is imperative in aiding them to attain and realize their full potential. These classroom interventions ought to begin early, in the course of the preschool years. One of the ways is through communication training, which lays emphasis on the functional use of language, for instance, learning to maintain a conversation with another individual (Lopez, 2015). In addition, the teacher ought to demonstrate and model the anticipated skills. More so, the students should provide visual schedules of the activities for the day in the classroom and in a way that is easily perceived by the student (Flynn, 2016). This schedule can be written out and combined with illustrations and picture symbols to increase the level of understanding. Another intervention is to make eye contact with the student suffering from ASD and anticipate obtaining the student’s attention. However, this might be hard as the student may have problems in sustaining eye contact. Therefore, close vicinity with a verbal reminder, such as, “Steve, look at me” might be effective (Flynn, 2016).
Language Lesson Plan Analysis
The meaning of Idioms, how they are used and the manner in which they improve our language
Related Standards and Benchmarks
1. Determining the meaning of words as well as phrases as they are used in a text
2. Determining the meaning of overall academic and domain oriented words or phrases in a text pertinent to a grade 5 subject area
To begin with, the students will gain knowledge regarding idioms and have comprehensive ideas of how they are used. Students will have the capacity to ascertain what an idiom is centered on information and understandings drawn from the text. Outline in simple terms the dissimilarity between semantics, syntax or morphology and pragmatic as well as phonology. Pragmatics is delineated as the rules and guidelines of socialization. Secondly, semantics is delineated as the meaning and context behind language. Morphology is language in everyday speech.
Language Domains Addressed
Phonology — Is phonology addressed during this lesson? How?
Yes, the lesson does address phonology. The students will take part in choral responses of the idioms as mentioned and purported by the teacher.
Morphology — Is morphology addressed during this lesson? How?
Morphology will also be taught a great deal in the lesson. This is to accentuate different phases or parts of the idiom phrases. For instance, “kicks the bucket” will be accentuated in a phrase to outline the demise of someone.
Syntax — Is syntax addressed during this lesson? How?
Yes, syntax will be slightly addressed in the lesson. This will indicate the order of the words. For instance, in the idiom, “Actions speak louder than words” the students will be shown the order of the object and the verb and thereafter adjective.
Semantics — Is semantics addressed during this lesson? How?
Semantics will be largely used in this particular lesson. Being the main objective of the whole lesson, the students will be taught the meaning of the different idioms. For instance, “A penny for your thoughts” will be taught to students and be explained that it means a way of asking someone what he or she is thinking.
Pragmatics — Are pragmatics addressed during this lesson? How?
Pragmatics are addressed during this lesson. In particular, the students will take turns to ask each other different idioms and their meanings to see if each of them has understood.
Beaty, J. (2012). Early childhood literacy strategies. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Belkadi, A. (2006). Language impairments in autism: evidence against mind-blindness. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics Vol. 14: 3-13.
Bernstein, D.K., Tiegerman-Farber, E. (2009). Language and communication disorders in children. Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Espstein, A. (2007). Essentials of active learning in preschool: Getting to know the curriculum. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.
Flynn, S. (2016). Inclusion strategies for students with autism spectrum disorders. Learn NC. Retrieved 30 June 2016 from: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/every-learner/6692
Longcope, P. (2009). Differences between the EFL and the ESL language learning contexts.
Lopez, K. (2015). Pragmatics and Semantics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Mayo Clinic. (2014). Autism Spectrum Disorder. Retrieved 30 June 2016 from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/basics/definition/con-20021148
Otto, B. (2014). Language Development in Early Childhood Education (4th ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Schoen, E., Paul, R., & Chawarska, K. (2011). Phonology and vocal behavior in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 4(3), 177-188.
Smee, N. (2006). Clip-Clop. New York: Boxer Books.
Vulchanova, M., Talcott, J. B., Vulchanov, V., Stankova, M., & Eshuis, H. (2012). Morphology in autism spectrum disorders: local processing bias and language. Cognitive neuropsychology, 29(7-8), 584-600.
Willis, J., Ross, T. (2000). Susan Laughs. New York: Henry Holt.
Wood, A. (2009). Quick as A Cricket. Baker and Taylor, CATS.
Reflection and Assignment
Case Study: Aaron
There are a number of concerns I have for Aaron. To begin with, his expressive language standard score of 69 is ranked as being severe since it is below 70. In the same manner, his total language standard score is 72, which is ranked as moderate, but not age appropriate. In addition, Aaron’s mean language utterances is 2.1, which is significantly low for a child his age as the standard MLU for 51 months should be 4.5 and above. His phonology is age appropriate and therefore is not cause for any concern or alarm. There are strategies that I would do for Aaron in my classroom in order to make him successful. Receptive skills are a form of strength for Aaron but he is functioning in the severely disordered range with respect to expressive language abilities. Therefore, an area of focus is improving his expressive language skills. One of the strategies is using visual clues in order to help Aaron have an effective order of ideas prior to expressing them. Another strategy is repeating and reinforcing correct language structures. Story telling is another strategy I would use in the classroom to help Aaron and thereafter discuss with him what he has seen. Also, I plan on using fitting and suitable questions in order to give Aaron the chance to respond and reply.
Case Study: Devante
There are a number of concerns emanating from the scores attained from Devante. To begin with, the receptive language standard score and total language standard score are moderate. The expressive language standard score is severe, which is a great worry. However, the mean language utterances are age appropriate. Another area of concern is the severe deficit level in Devante’s phonology. This is an area that is worrying as it can result in severe unintelligibility of the child. One of the ways in which I would help Devante in the classroom is through teaching phonological awareness. I will undertake classroom activities that will stimulate phonemic awareness as this is a precise and certain way of getting the child ready for reading. One of the ways will be listening to sequences of sounds through listening games. This particular activity will be largely beneficial for Devante as it will develop his cognitive and attentive capabilities for thinking about sequences of sounds and the language. With regard to the game, Devante will be initially challenged to ascertain single sounds and thereafter pinpoint every one of a sequence of sounds. For instance, I will ask the child to cover his eyes as I make a familiar noise and then ask them to determine the noise. For instance, some of these activities will include clapping, closing the door, and tapping the desk (Adams et al., 2015).
Case Study: Jalesa
There is a great deal of worry and concern with regard to Jalesa. To begin with, she is 51 months but is not able to speak. She only points towards what she wants and needs. In addition, she does not follow instructions. However, she does respond to her name. A major concern is that a non-verbal child who is four years old might end up never being able to talk. One of the ways I would try and help this child is through highlighting significant predictors of language acquisitions, particularly the role played by non-verbal cognitive and social skills, which will aid in promoting language. There are a number of different strategies that I will employ in the classroom to help her language development. For starters, I will encourage play and social interaction. These will provide good prospects for the child to communicate. Another strategy will be focusing on nonverbal communication. This will be done using my body as well as my voice when communicating and also utilizing gestures that are simple for the child to imitate. This is for the reason that gestures together with eye contact can create a basis for language. Another strategy that I will employ will be following Jalesa’s interests. Instead of disrupting her focus, I will follow along with words. In particular, I will employ the one-up rule and in turn narrate what the child is undertaking. For instance, if Jalesa is playing with a ball, I will use the words “ball” or “round” (Autism Speaks, 2013).
Case Study: Ricky
Ricky had a Receptive Language Standard Score of 79, which is ranked as mild deficit, an Expressive Language Standard Score of 69, which is deemed severe and a Total Language Standard Score of 74, which is ranked as moderate. As noted, Ricky says / j / for / y/and / ch / for / sh/. One of the reasons why Ricky would be having these problems is owing to having a speech sound disorder. The main particular issue of concern is Ricky’s phonetic development. To be more precise, Ricky faces a functional difficulty at the phonetic level, which in turn makes it much harder for him to utter or say the words they require for articulate speech. This is a speech difficulty that I can plan on helping Ricky to overcome. One of the strategies I would undertake is speech instruction through demonstration. For instance, I would demonstrate to Ricky that / ch / is a sound that is explosive. Therefore, I would show him to begin in the / t / position, with the tongue being up touching the top most part of the mouth just behind the front teeth. Thereafter, I would have Ricky drop his jaw as he blows out. This would be a continuous practice done aloud to help him overcome this difficulty. With additional practice, the child will be able to start making proper pronouncements of the sounds (Chard & Dickson, 1999).
Case Study: Robyn
The scores attained by Robyn in the Preschool Language Scale are quite impressive. Receptive Language Standard Score, Expressive Language Standard Score and Total Language Standard Score of the child are all above the 86 mark, which implies that the severity rating is within normal limits. However, there are a number of elements shown by Robyn that are cause for concern and worry. To begin with, Robyn pulls her head down and forward when repeating words. More so, her mother did point out that her uncle does in fact stutter. This is a worrying aspect, owing to the fact that if a child has a persistent relative, then the child’s likelihood of also becoming a persistent stutter is 65% (Kang et al., 2010). One of the ways in which I would help the child is to first of all recommend therapy outside the classroom if it continues being persistent. Another element is to allow the child to speak at her own pace, even when stuttering. However, it is imperative to note that Robyn’s avoidance of words is helping and is deemed to be a healthy form of stuttering. Another strategy to cope with when moving the head is to show open and accepting body language to indicate that it is okay and accepting. Another approach will be to reassure Robyn, for instance, “You’re doing great, go on. You can do it” (Koegel and Koegel, 1995). Reassurance helps ease any sense or feeling of frustration, which will enable Robyn to have more confidence in speaking.
Adams, M. J., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., Beeler, T. (2015). Phonemic Activities for the Preschool or Elementary Classroom. Reading Rockets. Retrieved 3 July 2016 from:http://www.readingrockets.org/article/phonemic-activities-preschool-or-elementary-classroom
Autism Speaks. (2013). Seven Ways to Help Your Nonverbal Child Speak. Retrieved 3 July 2016 from: https://www.autismspeaks.org/blog/2013/03/19/seven-ways-help-your-nonverbal-child-speak
Chard, D. J., & Dickson, S. V. (1999). Phonological awareness instructional and assessment guidelines. Intervention in school and clinic, 34(5), 261-270.
Kang, C., Riazuddin, S., Mundorff, J., Sommer, M., Koch, M. A., Paulus, W., … & Davis, S. (2010). Genetic susceptibility to persistent stuttering. N Engl J Med, 2010(362), 2226-2227.
Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. E. (1995). Teaching children with autism: Strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities. Paul H Brookes Publishing.
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What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!